Little Bits of History

June 24

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 24, 2017

1717: The Premier Grand Lodge of England is founded. Initially it was called the Grand Lodge of London and Westminster. Guiding principles were and remain the ideal of tolerance and understanding brought about by the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution of the 1600s. George I, the first Hanoverian King of England had recently come to power and the first Jacobite insurrection had been quashed. The men of London were inspired to create a space where knowledge and craftsmanship were appreciated. Four lodges had previously held meetings and each was known for the location in which they met. On this day, the four separate lodges came together at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house in St. Paul’s Churchyard in London and created the Grand Lodge.

Their first order of business was to arrange when to meet again and to choose a Grand Master from among those present. In the early days of the Lodge, there was probably little grandeur to be had. Anthony Sayer was the first Grand Master and little is known of him. He was replaced by George Payne who held a high government position in the Exchequer. He was both the second and fourth Grand Master with John Theophilus Desaguliers holding the position in between, he was a scientist, clergyman, and one of Isaac Newton’s students. After this, all Grand Masters held a position in the nobility.

George Payne wrote the General Regulations of a Free Mason as his own project for himself. Within a few years, The Constitutions of the Free-Masons was penned and held the history, rules and regulations, and an updated constitution about the “most Ancient and Right Worshipful Fraternity”. Not even all of London let alone the rest of the world was impressed with the London Lodge and conflict built up over time. Two major factions were on the rise within the movement and it wasn’t until nearly the end of the century some measure of cohesiveness could be maintained.

The Freemasons were established as fraternal organizations of stonemasons beginning in the 14th century. They helped regulated the qualifications of the craftsmen and their interactions with authorities and with clients. Even now, the degrees maintain the three grades of medieval craft guilds with Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Mason. The basic organizational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge and these are governed at the regional level (state, province, or nation) by a Grand Lodge. There is no international or worldwide Grand Lodge. Regular Freemasonry today demands members believe in a Deity and no women are admitted while there is no discussion or politics or religion included. Continental Freemasonry is more “liberal” and some or all of these restrictions have been abandoned.

Man’s action are the picture book of his creeds. – Ralph Waldo Emerson

Growing old is no more than a bad habit which a busy man has no time to form. – Ande Maurois

The poor man is not he who is without a cent, but he who is without a dream. – Harry Kemp

The Society or Fraternity of Freemasons is more in the nature of a system of Philosophy or of moral and social virtues taught by symbols, allegories, and lectures based upon fundamental truths, the observance of which tends to promote stability of character, conservatism, morality and good citizenship. – H. W. Coil

June 23

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 23, 2017

1960: Mestranol/norethynodrel (trade name Enovid [US] and Enavid [UK]) is approved for use as a contraceptive. Mestranol is a synthetic, steroidal estrogen and norethynodrel is a steroidal progestin making this the first combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) to be approved. Enovid was first approved on June 10, 1957 but only for treatment of menstrual disorders. It wasn’t until this day it got its new designation. It took until 1961 to be approved in Canada and the United Kingdom. Today, there are still COCPs available, but the brand was discontinued in 1988 along with most other first generation high estrogen COCPs.

COCPs, familiarly known as The Pill, are taken daily in order to inhibit female fertility and are reversible. They are used around the world with more than 100 million women using this form of birth control and about 12 million of them live in the US. It is the most widely used form of birth control in the US for women between the ages of 15 and 44. Use varies by age, education, marital status, and country. In the UK, about 34% of women 16-49 use COCPs or progestogen-only pills while in Japan, only about 1% use this method. If used perfectly, there is about a 0.3% chance of pregnancy in the first year, but when seen as regular usage the pregnancy rate increased to 9% with these being attributed to poor instructions, mistakes of the user, or willful misuse or non-compliance.

The history of birth control is tightly entwined with the history of abortion. Both have been well documented in ancient history from Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. The Ebers Papyrus from 1550 BC and the Kahun Papyrus from 1850 BC both list various ways to prevent pregnancy. Honey, acacia leaves, and lint were inserted into the vagina to prevent sperm from traveling. The older papyrus also included a description of a pessary (akin to a diaphragm) using acacia gum, which recent research has found to have spermatocidal qualities and is still used in some contraceptive jellies. The ancient texts also recommend covering the cervix with gummy substances and suggested lactation as a method of birth control. Coitus interruptus was mentioned in the Bible. Other regions of the world also found different plants to be helpful in slowing sperm.

Barrier methods improved with time but it wasn’t until the 20th century that use became more routine. Early condoms were made of a variety of materials, some better at slowing the spread of disease more than as actual birth control. Intrauterine devices also were on the market, but they have a higher rate of side effects and do nothing to stop the spread of disease. There has always been the option of not engaging in reproductive activities, either while it was assumed one was fertile or even eschewing sexual relations altogether. All the above methods are reversible without issue. Sterilization is also available. They are not readily reversible. Tubal ligations for women have been available since 1930 and vasectomy for men has been available since 1899 with first experimentation tried in 1785.

The only remedy against hunger is reasonable birth control. – Friedrich Durrenmatt

I do not want to speak about overpopulation or birth control, but I think education is the way to give new impetus to the poverty question. – Harri Holkeri

I always joke with people that having nephews is the best birth control there is. – Tahj Mowry

We have access to practical, ethical and scientifically established methods of birth control. So I think that is the most ethical way to reduce our population. – Christian de Duve

June 22

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 22, 2017

1944: The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act is signed into law by Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  After World War I, servicemen returning to the United States were supposed to have benefits available to them as gratitude for their service. However, things did not go smoothly and it became a political issue throughout the 1920s and 1930s. As benefits to all veterans of military service, both men and women, were delayed, those veterans formed into Veterans’ organizations with the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) and the American Legion as the two main pillars seeking redress from Washington, D.C. When World War II came along, knowing the dismal record of taking care of veterans, the older generation set out to ensure the Greatest Generation would be properly cared for should they return home.

Harry Comery, former National Commander of the American Legion, has been credited with writing the first draft of what we call today the GI Bill. Senator Ernest McFarland (D-Arizona) was helped by Warren Atherton, a lawyer and then-current National Commander of the Legion, and they are considered to be the “fathers of the GI Bill”. Congresswoman Edith Rogers (R-Massachusetts) was co-sponsor and she was the “mother of the GI Bill”. These four people helped to write and get the bill through both houses of Congress. Roosevelt had proposed a bill as a test to help poor veterans returning home and he sought to limit that help to just one year of funding. Only top scorers on a test would get four years of paid college.

The Bill as presented went beyond Roosevelt’s plan and applied to all veterans regardless of wealth. They were to be offered a low interest, zero down payment home loan with better deals available for new construction rather than older homes. This had the effect of spurring many returning veterans to move out of urban apartments into newly built homes in the suburbs. Unemployment benefits were to be paid out for those actively looking for work for up to 52 weeks. Monies set aside for this went unused as many returning servicemen were able to find better jobs or were pursuing higher education upon their return. This was also covered under the Bill. High school, college, and vocational/technical schools were all covered.

By 1956, about 2.2 million returning vets had used the Bill to attend college or university while another 5.6 million vets were able to gain further training for better employment opportunities. The law has been updated several times over the years. Vietnam veterans were even more willing to use the Bill to finance college (71%) when compared to World War II vets (51%) and Korean War vets (43%). A 1952 adjustment began to send tuition help directly to veterans since it was discovered colleges and universities were overcharging veterans to acquire more cash. President Obama also signed Executive Order 13607 to ensure predatory colleges did not aggressively target veterans and their families to exploit this law designed to help veterans re-assimilate into civilian society.

Twenty-five million veterans are living among us today. These men and women selflessly set aside their civilian lives to put on the uniform and serve us. – Steve Buyer

I want people to take the initiative to find veterans that need help, veterans that are suffering and in need of assistance reintegrating from combat back into society, into normal family lives and jobs. We need to take a real ‘boots on the ground’ approach to helping veterans in need. – Max Martini

The sacrifices made by veterans and their willingness to fight in defense of our nation merit our deep respect and praise – and to the best in benefits and medical care. – Sue Kelly

When the peace treaty is signed, the war isn’t over for the veterans, or the family. It’s just starting. – Karl Marlantes

June 21

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 21, 2017

1621: The Old Town Square executions take place in Prague. A Protestant uprising of the Bohemian estates against the Catholic Hapsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire resulted in the Thirty Years’ War. Begun in central Europe in 1618 as a clash among religiously aligned countries, it continued on to become one of the most destructive conflicts in European history involving most of the continent as well as allies outside Europe with 8 million casualties, it was the deadliest European religious war. As the Holy Roman Empire fragmented, leaders of smaller state/nations brought in mercenaries to help them gain independence from both France and the Holy Roman Empire.

The Bohemian estates were Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Upper and Lower Lusatia. They would eventually become Czechoslovakia, Saxony, and Prussia and today they are parts of Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Poland. The Battle of White Mountain, fought on November 8, 1620 pitted the Bohemians against the Holy Roman Empire with help from Spain and the Catholic League. The 15,000 strong Bohemian force was overwhelmed by the 27,000 soldiers of the Holy Roman Empire and allies. The armies met outside Prague and the Bohemian forces were quashed. The loss would affect the Czech lands for the next 300 years. They had been predominantly Protestant prior to the war, and were predominantly Catholic into the 20th century.

The Bohemian portion of the war was essentially over with the loss. On this day, 27 Czech leaders were executed in the town square. Jindřich Matyáš Thurn managed to escape into exile in Sweden where he became a leader and diplomat in the continued resistance to Ferdinand II. Martin Fruwein z Podolí was expected to be executed as well, but died before he could be killed. The 27 men were three noblemen, seven knights, and 17 burghers. Some other leaders of the uprising were able to escape and others had their punishments reduced or were pardoned. Today, there is a monument in the square holding 27 crosses to commemorate the men killed here.

While this portion of the War may have ended, the conflict remained as Ferdinand II tried impose religious uniformity among the lands under his control. The outside world was appalled by Ferdinand’s treatment of Bohemians and atrocities committed during the period. Other countries entered the fray with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden transforming Ferdinand’s wish for religious unity under the Catholic Church into a full scale war. Six days short of thirty years after the beginning of the fighting, with about 8 million dead, the Hapsburg regime was curtailed, Protestants were free to practice, feudalism throughout Europe was in decline, and the Swedish Empire was on the rise.

Love has its place, as does hate. Peace has its place, as does war. Mercy has its place, as do cruelty and revenge. – Meir Kahane

I love it when Muslims go to war with each other, as I do when the Christians do, because it shows there’s no such thing as the Christian world and the Islamic world. That’s all crap. – Christopher Hitchens

Alas, nothing reveals man the way war does. Nothing so accentuates in him the beauty and ugliness, the intelligence and foolishness, the brutishness and humanity, the courage and cowardice, the enigma. – Oriana Fallaci

A society that admits misery, a humanity that admits war, seem to me an inferior society and a debased humanity; it is a higher society and a more elevated humanity at which I am aiming – a society without kings, a humanity without barriers. – Victor Hugo

June 20

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 20, 2017

1631: The Sack of Baltimore is carried out. Baltimore lies in County Cork in Ireland and is the southernmost parish in the country. The English were in control of Ireland at the time and Sir Thomas Crooke, 1st Baronet was given permission from King James I to establish a center there in 1605. The lands were leased from Sir Fineen O’Driscoll, head of the O’Driscoll clan. Baltimre had an established, lucrative sardine fishery and was a pirate base. It was said all the women of Baltimore were either the wives or mistresses of pirates and when the English took over, not much changed.

A raid was spearheaded by the Dutch captain, Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, also called Murad Reis the Younger. He was joined by other Dutchmen, Moroccans, Algerians, and Ottoman Turks working the slave trade. The attack on this day remains the largest by Barbary pirates in either Ireland or Great Britain. Murad’s crew captured a fishing boat and coerced Hackett, the fisherman, to lead them stealthily into the village upon which time he would be granted his freedom. Hackett led the armed pirates in and they then captured most of the villagers. There were at least 108 English settlers taken with 237 given from another source. Most of the local people were taken away as well. The captured people were taken away to be sold into slavery in North Africa.

There are some theories about the day’s event. It has been suggested that Sir Walter Coppinger, a Catholic lawyer and member of a leading Cork family was vying for control of the lucrative assets of the village. Coppinger had become the dominant British power in the region after the death of Cooke. However, the O’Driscoll family was still in nominal control of the money being paid for the use of their fisheries. Coppinger wished to gain complete control of the village, the fishery, and the farming done by English settlers. Another possible reason for the attack was the exiling of the O’Driscoll family with many of them having gone to Spain after the Battle of Kinsale (1601-1602). With little hope of legally retaining their control over Baltimore from abroad, they may have orchestrated the raid to thwart Coppinger. Or perhaps, Murad thought it up all by himself.

It should be noted that there were rumors of a Barbary pirate attack on the Cork coast but it was thought Kinsale was a more likely target than Baltimore. In the wake of the attack, Hackett was seized by the remaining villagers who hung him. They then scattered and Baltimore was deserted for generations. Most of the captured were relegated to becoming galley slaves and rowed pirate ships for others until they died. More were placed as domestic slaves or laborers. Three of the captured were returned to Ireland via ransoms paid; one almost at once and two more were ransomed in 1646.

Life’s pretty good, and why wouldn’t it be? I’m a pirate, after all. – Johnny Depp

I don’t really know much about pirates, or pirate culture. I’d be a contrarian pirate. – Todd Barry

If ye can’t trust a pirate, ye damn well can’t trust a merchant either! – unknown

Even pirates, before they attack another ship, hoist a black flag. – Bela Kiraly

June 19

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 19, 2017

1913: The Natives Land Act is given Royal Assent. Also called Act No. 27 of 1913, it was aimed at regulating the acquisition of land enacted by the Parliament of South Africa. When the British landed at Cape of Good Hope they began their colonization expansion by setting up their own government in the land. The Queen granted the Cape its first Parliament in 1853 and they created a government in which all males were given the same considerations, regardless of race. Women were still second class citizens, also regardless of race. In 1872, a new Parliament with new laws entered the picture and all males were still given the franchise if they could pay the £25 fee. This was available to most males owning land. Time moved on and whites began to become the majority holders of all lands while Natives were stripped of both lands and franchise.

In 1910, South Africa united and became the southernmost country in Africa. It was governed still by the British Empire and the population was mostly black, although 90% of the land was now owned by whites. The Natives Land Act instituted the policy that land could neither be bought or sold to members of another race. Included in the law was a prohibition against serfdom or sharecropping but it protected existing agreements or arrangements whereby land could be hired or leased at will. The law was able to protect African chiefs and their communal landholdings. Included in the Act, no longer would black tenant farming on white-owned land be permitted. The devastating effects of this last part were not immediate, but they were long-lasting.

The law was implemented on June 19, 1913 and blacks were essentially stripped of the right to own land. Chiefs were able to retain lands, but since whites already owned most of the land, blacks were forced into wage labor market. This Act was a cornerstone of the racial segregation and discrimination that ruled South Africa. Apartheid was institutionalized with more laws stripping natives of their lands, their rights, and any say in their government. It took decades before the systematic degradations afforded to people daring to live in their own lands were repealed. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word literally meaning “apart-hood” or the state of being apart or separate.

Opposition to this Act was minimal, but vocal. John Dube, a newspaperman, used his platform to bring the issue to the public. The black leader supported whites who had created an environment where white leaders returned at least some of the land to the native populations so they might live and thrive. The minister at the time was a Cape Liberal who opposed the disenfranchisement of blacks but was perfectly fine with separate residential areas for Whites and Natives. Apartheid would eventually fall, but much was lost during the years of separation and the years of struggle to return South Africa to a desegregated state.

Together we have travelled a long road to be where we are today. This has been a road of struggle against colonial and apartheid oppression. – Thabo Mbeki

I played an integral part in helpings formulating that new vision… that we must abandon apartheid and accept one united South Africa with equal rights for all, with all forms of discrimination to be scrapped from the statute book. – F. W. de Klerk

Apartheid – both petty and grand – is obviously evil. Nothing can justify the arrogant assumption that a clique of foreigners has the right to decide on the lives of a majority. – Steven Biko

To deny people their human rights is to challenge their very humanity. – Nelson Mandela

June 18

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 18, 2017

1972: British European Airways (BEA) Flight 548 goes into a deep stall. BEA was founded in 1948 and flew from the United Kingdom to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. They were also the largest domestic UK operator with hubs in London, Manchester, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Belfast. They were formed after World War II when restrictions on civil flying were lifted. They operated independently until 1974 when they merged with British Overseas Airways Corporation to form British Airways. On this day, the plane was a Hawker Siddeley HS 121 Trident (originally the de Havilland DH 121) which was typically used for short or medium-range flights. It was the first T-tail three-engined jet and 117 of them were built for BEA.

The incident took place amid turbulence caused by an impending pilots’ strike which caused disruptions among the crew members. A postal ballot was being held and because of the possible strike, Flight 548 was loaded to maximum capacity. Part of the issue was pay increases, which younger pilots needed, but older pilots did not. Twenty-two of the lower paid co-pilots were already out on strike and even more junior help was placed into a higher demand position in order to keep flights moving. Captain Stanley Key had complained just three days prior how useless the inexperienced and recently promoted co-pilots were. Because of tensions in the cockpit, even more errors were made and while experienced pilots could compensate for the errors, given enough time, it was part of the issues pilots had with the company.

Key was an experienced pilot, aged 51 and with 15,000 hours flying time including 4,000 hours on this particular plane type. Jeremy Keighley was co-pilot, aged 22 with six weeks of employment with the company and just 29 hours experience in the co-pilot position. Simon Ticehurst, aged 24, was the P3 crew member with 1,400 hours of flying time including 750 on Tridents. There were three more crew members and 112 passengers on the flight which left Heathrow Airport on its way to Brussels. Just three minutes before takeoff, three other people needed to fly a plane back from Brussels were boarded, which necessitated the removal of some cargo because of weight restrictions. The doors were locked and 4.03 PM the plane was given permission to taxi and three minutes later they were given departure clearance.

One minute later, with clearance given a second time, Key was permitted to take off into the stormy skies full of turbulence and low cloud cover. At 4.08.30 they began to taxi and were in the skies 44 seconds later. The cloud cover was so low, there was little visibility and at 114 seconds into the flight, mechanical procedures began, which needed more altitude to be done correctly. Within two seconds the plane went into a deep stall. With no time to correct the problem and the plane crashed precisely at 4.11 PM just missing a busy London road. All aboard were killed. The crash was investigated under a media circus atmosphere. The end result was a new rule necessitating planes now carry cockpit voice recorders.

We were out with the dog and I looked up and saw the plane.

It was just coming out of the mist when the engines stalled and it seemed it glided down. It was just like a dream. The plane just fell out of the sky.

We just about saw it hit the ground … because it was right in a clump of trees.

When it did hit the ground the front bit hit first and the back bit was just blown away. – all from Trevor Burke, eyewitness aged 13

June 17

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 17, 2017

1462: The Night Attack takes place at Târgovişte. Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. Mehmed II, the Sultan, thought it would be possible to add more lands to his Empire and went northwest in order to bring more lands under his command. Mehmed issued a Jizya over Bosnia, this was a tax imposed on all non-Muslims. Wallachia, located north of the Danube River, was in control not only of the lands there, but the northern side of the waterway. Mehmed sought to control the river, the people, and the income stream. The West continued to fight against the invaders and even the Pope sent out a Crusade to help defeat the Ottomans. There was little European backing for the Crusade, which Mehmed took as a chance to invade northwards. The ruler of the Wallachia had one ally, Mihály Szilágyi, and he had been captured in 1460. His men were tortured and killed and he was sawed in half.

The leader of Wallachia had not paid the Jizya for years. The yearly tax of 10,000 ducats was only part of the debt as Mehmed also insisted on payment for 1,000 boys trained as janissaries or soldiers. Mehmed crossed the Danube to exact revenge and teach his opponent a lesson. He called for armies to be assembled and amassed troops numbering between 100,000 and 120,000 men. But his opponent was not an ordinary soldier. The Wallachia leader had invaded Bulgaria and impaled over 23,000 Turks which gave him his name, Vlad the Impaler. Vlad III Țepeș was also called Vlad Dracula, the son of Vlad Dracul. He led his troops numbering around 30,000 to 35,000.

Mehmed’s estimate of his troops was as high as 500,000 while Vlad was unable to amass anything near that number. The Hungarian king had promised support but did not deliver. The majority of Vlad’s army were peasants and shepherds. The men on horseback were few in number and properly armed as were Vlad’s personal guards. The Turks approached lands and tried to disembark their boats only to be overcome by arrows. They withdrew and tried again landed in sections downstream until their army was on the north side of the river. Vlad fought a scorched earth pattern, poisoning waters and setting traps in the marshes. Mehmed’s army advanced for a week until this night. Vlad had used the time to send the sick and dying into the midst of his enemy’s troops, especially people with bubonic plague. During the night, as Mehmed’s troops were encamped south of the capital, Vlad struck.

Vlad entered the camp in disguise and was unchallenged. He learned where the Sultan was and how his defense was set. Vlad knew it was Mehmed’s policy that soldiers must remain in their tents at night. The Wallachian troops used the information their leader had gathered and sent several forays into the camp. Documents differ on how many losses were incurred. All agree Vlad sustained few losses while Mehmed suffered considerable casualties, one account listing 20,000. Vlad had hoped to assassinate Mehmed, but came to the wrong tent and attacked two viziers instead. Mehmed continued his move north only to find Vlad had gone before. He found another 20,000 impaled Turks lining the road. Mehmed, capturing slaves and goods, returned home.

War alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and imposes the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to make it.- Benito Mussolini

Against war one might say that it makes the victor stupid and the vanquished malicious. In its favor, that in producing these two effects it barbarizes, and so makes the combatants more natural. For culture it is a sleep or a wintertime, and man emerges from it stronger for good and for evil. – Friedrich Nietzsche

The god of war is impartial: he hands out death to the man who hands out death. – Homer

Wars grew and mutated, finding ways to stay alive; they hung on with the grim tenacity of a weed growing in a crack in a wall, feeding on whatever nutrients their roots and tendrils could find. – K. J. Parker

June 16

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 16, 2017

1904: Leopold Bloom shares his day. Leopold Bloom is the protagonist of James Joyce’s Ulysses. Bloom was the son of a Huganrian Jew who emigrated to Ireland and converted to Protestantism. He converted to Catholicism in order to marry. He awoke on this day and began his journey, his odyssey, through the streets of Dublin. Ulysses, the Roman version of the term Odysseus, is based on the Homeric poem and the 265,000 word book is divided into 18 episodes, each based on the trip outlined in the Odyssey. The tale first appeared in The Little Review as a serialized version between March 1918 and December 1920. It was published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach in Paris on February 2, 1922 which was Joyce’s fortieth birthday. It is considered one of the most important works of modern literature.

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was also a short story writer from Rathgar, a suburb of Dublin. In his early twenties he moved to mainland Europe where he lived for the rest of his life. The family was relatively wealthy. As a boy, he was attacked by a dog, leaving him with a lifelong fear of the animal and after his aunt’s description of storms as God’s wrath, he also was terrorized by thunderstorms. Joyce was educated in Jesuit schools and was influenced by the philosophy or Thomas Aquinas. While in college, Joyce began his writing career in earnest, and even learned Norwegian in order to send a letter to Henrik Ibsen. After graduation, he left for Paris to study medicine, but soon abandoned it. Although raised in a Catholic home, by the age of twenty, he had abandoned his faith as well.

On June 16, 1904 he met Nora Barnacle, a chambermaid from Galway. It was his basis for choosing the date for his most famous work. He was drinking heavily and got into a fight. His father’s friend, Alfred Hunter, brought him home and cared for his injuries. Hunter was a Jew with an unfaithful wife, the basis for Leopold. In less than a week, he was in another altercation, packed his things, and took off with Nora in a self-imposed exile. The couple first moved to Switzerland where a job was supposed to be waiting; it wasn’t. They moved to Trieste and stayed there for the next ten years. In 1920, Ezra Pound invited the Joyce family to visit for a week. They lived in Paris for the next twenty years.

Ulysses, the stream of consciousness novel, was full of puns, parodies, and allusions, which Joyce hoped would keep literature professors busy for decades. It worked and the novel has a following worldwide with many arguing points from throughout the text. There have been at least eighteen editions, of various lengths, published. Each holds variations in different impressions. The first edition, with over 2,000 errors was said to still be the most accurate printed. Regardless of errors, intentional or not, the date is celebrated in Dublin and around the world as Bloomsday, in honor of Leopold Bloom.

There is no heresy or no philosophy which is so abhorrent to the church as a human being.

Art is the human disposition of sensible or intelligible matter for an aesthetic end.

To say that a great genius is half-mad, while recognizing his artistic prowess, is worth as much as saying that he was rheumatic, or that he suffered from diabetes. Madness, in fact, is a medical expression to which a balanced critic should pay no more heed than he would to the accusation of heresy brought by the theologian, or to the accusation of immorality brought by the public prosecutor.

Writing in English is the most ingenious torture ever devised for sins committed in previous lives. The English reading public explains the reason why. – all from James Joyce

June 15

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 15, 2017

1878: Proof of how a horse runs is captured. Eadweard Muybridge (born Edward James Muggeridge, but changed his to what he believed to be the original Anglo-Saxon form) was born in England in 1830. He came to America at age twenty but returned to England at age 31. He then took up the craft of photography and gained two British patents around the idea of the wet-plate collodion process. He returned to America and took large photographs of the Yosemite Valley which made him world famous. He 1874, he shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wife’s lover, but was acquitted on the grounds of justifiable homicide. He then traveled in Central America on a photographic expedition. In the 1880s, he created over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion while at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

By filming individual frames of stop action movement, it was possible to see what the eye could not. The movements were disrupted in mid-pose. At speed, the human eye cannot see the flow of the movements. Leland Stanford commission Muybridge to create a series of still photographs of a horse galloping. Stanford was interesting in the exact gait of a moving horse, specifically, if all four hooves were off the ground at one time. He owned a large farm where he bred and trained horses, both Stanardbreds and Thoroughbreds. The former were used for trotting races while the latter where ridden by jockeys. In order to improve their running styles, Stanford needed to know what that was.

During July 1877, Muybridge attempted to learn the four-hoof answer by taking ever sharper images of Occident, one of Stanford’s trotters, running at racing speed gait. He managed to catch a still shot of the horse with all four feet off the ground. However, when the image was sent to the press, it was found the negative had been retouched and it was disqualified. Although retouching was permitted at the time and Muybridge won an award with the picture, the press was not impressed. So on this day, a new experiment was carried out.

Sallie Gardner, a Thoroughbred, was photographed at 1.40 gait (about 36 mph). Muybridge set up 24 cameras, each 27 inches apart from the prior one. The shutters were controlled by trip wires triggered by the horse’s legs. The pictures were taken one twenty-fifth second apart. The series of photographs could then be viewed in rapid succession using a zoopraxiscope and Sallie Gardner did, indeed, have all four hooves off the ground at once. In  1880, the images were projected to a large screen at the California School of Fine Arts and so began the moving picture industry.

In photography there is a reality so subtle that it becomes more real than reality. – Alfred Stieglitz

Taking an image, freezing a moment, reveals how rich reality truly is. – unknown

A portrait is not made in the camera but on either side of it. – Edward Steichen

I really believe there are things nobody would see if I didn’t photograph them. – Diane Arbus