Little Bits of History

July 25

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 25, 2017

315: The Arch of Constantine officially opens. The Arch was built between 312 and 315 and was dedicated by the Roman Senate to honor Constantine’s reign (306-337) and especially his victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge which took place on October 28, 312. Constantine came to Rome in 312, after his victory and then left two month later and didn’t return until 326. During his time in the capital, they were also celebrating the decennia, a series of games (like the Olympics) Romans participated in. The games were also a reason for many prayers to be offered up. During all the festivities, the Senate decided to build the largest triumphal arch in the empire.

Although dedicated to Constantine, much of the massive structure contains decorative materials from the earlier monuments to Trajan (98-117), Hadrian (117-138), and Marcus Aurelius (161-180). While it was the last of the Roman triumphal arches, it was also the only one to make extensive use of spolia (reused major reliefs from other, earlier monuments). The arch is 68 feet high, 85 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. There are three archways with the central one 37 feet high and 21 feet wide while the two bordering arches are each 24 feet high and 11 feet wide. Above the entire archway is an attic made of brickwork and faced with marble.

The structure is located between the Coliseum and Palatine Hill. The arch spans Via Triumphalis, the road on which emperors entered the city in triumph. The route began at the Campus Martius, threaded through the Circus Maximus, and around Palatine Hill. As soon as the procession passed through the Arch of Constantine, they would turn left at the Meta Sudans and Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and then on to Capitoline Hill which had them pass through both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the arch was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. The first restoration project was carried out in the 1700s. The last excavations took place in the 1990s as the city prepared for the Great Jubilee of 2000. The arch was the finish line for the 1960 Summer Olympics Marathon.

Because pieces were cobbled together from other monuments, it is possible to notice the artistic changes over the centuries of the Roman Empire. Rome was by this time, a city in decline as would become evident when Constantine moved his capital to Constantinople in 324. The styles from the earlier works were much less “violent” but in one relief, the head of an earlier emperor was replaced by Constantine’s image and the later artist was able to copy the style of the earlier one. Earlier parts are more Hellenistic than the later portions of the reliefs. The piece remains, today, a great lesson in art history and the building projects of the Romans.

Rome has grown since its humble beginnings that it is now overwhelmed by its own greatness. – Livy

Ancient Rome was as confident of the immutability of its world and the continual expansion and improvement of the human lot as we are today. – Arthur Erickson

They say Rome wasn’t built in a day, but I wasn’t on that particular job. – Brian Clough

Rome will exist as long as the Coliseum does; when the Coliseum falls, so will Rome; when Rome falls, so will the world. –  Venerable Bede

July 24

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 24, 2017

1927: The Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing is unveiled. Located in Ypres, Belgium, it was dedicated to the British and Commonwealth soldiers killed in the Ypres Salient of World War I and whose graves were unknown. The region around Ypres proper, the Ypres Salient, was the location of some of the biggest battles of the Great War. British, French, Canadian, and Belgian troops attempted to hold back the German incursion in the 1914 Race to the Sea. Hundreds of thousands of men were casualties of the horrific fighting taking place over several months. The Memorial was placed at the starting point for one of the main roads out of town which led the Allied soldiers to the front lines.

The roadway and gate have existed since medieval times, originally as a trade route. The city had to fortify itself against potential invaders and built walls and gates to do so. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the gates were upgraded several times. The gate became known as the Menenpoort (Menin Gate in English) because the road led to the small town of Menen. German strategic plans called for their capture of Belgium and a route to the North Sea. There were five major battles and several smaller ones fought over the path to the sea. British and Commonwealth soldiers went through the gates with 300,000 of them meeting their deaths, 90,000 of them with no known graves.

The arch was designed by Reginald Blomfield in 1921. One enters a barrel vaulted passage as traffic through the mausoleum honors the Missing. There is a lion atop the arch, representing both Britain and Flanders. There is a large Hall of Memory with the names of 54,395 Commonwealth soldiers who died in the Salient but whose bodies were never found. It was originally planned to contain more names, but it was found to be too small and many of the rest of the names are memorialized at Tyne Cot Memorial to the Mission. The Gate was built by the War Graves Commission and as always, not everyone approved. It should be noted, that even now, remains of long dead soldiers are found in the field surrounding Ypres.

When the Gate opened, the citizens wanted to express their thanks to the men and boys who had sacrificed so much so that they might be free. As a symbol of that gratitude, at 8 PM, they played “Last Post”, the British military bugle call to the end of the day. This ceremony has been conducted daily since July 2, 1928 except during World War II when the Germans occupied the region. At that time, the ceremony was held at Brookwood Military Cemetery in Surrey, England. On the day the Polish troops entered town to evict the Germans, the ceremony began again, even as fighting continued in other part of Ypres. On certain days of the year, an Extended Last Post ceremony is held. Their schedule can be found here.

As we express our gratitude, we must never forget that the highest appreciation is not to utter words, but to live by them. – John F. Kennedy

Gratitude makes sense of our past, brings peace for today, and creates a vision for tomorrow. – Melody Beattie

Gratitude changes the pangs of memory into a tranquil joy. – Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Gratitude is the most exquisite form of courtesy. – Jacques Maritain

July 23

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 23, 2017

1829: US Patent No. 5581X is issued. The X-patents were issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office between July 1790 (when the first patent was issued) and July 1836 (when a disastrous fire destroyed the patent office. It is thought about 9,957 patents were lost, along with some prototypes also stored at the facility. Better record keeping was instituted after the fire, but only 2,845 of those lost patents have been restored. This invention is one of those lucky ones and the patent is available online.

William Austin Burt was born in Massachusetts in 1792. He was an inventor, legislator, surveyor, and millwright. He was interested in the sea and navigation, but his mother discouraged him from the sailing life since her own father had died at sea. Instead. William used his skills to build better navigational instrumentation. These included a solar compass which used the sun as a measurement and could be used both on land and at sea, and an equatorial sextant which was a precision instrument for positioning a ship at sea. But his patent granted on this day was for something more homebound.

The typographer was America’s first typewriter. While a working prototype was built, it did not speed up secretarial work as hoped. Pellegrino Turri had made a machine in 1808, with this patent, Burt had exclusive American rights to see typographers in the US for 14 years and had the paper signed by President Andrew Jackson to prove it. The name for the machine didn’t change until 1874 and any machine using letters of typeface were typographers. Burt’s machine was unable to make typing much easier and it would take many improvements before typewriters looked anything like we imagine today.

Burt’s machine was 12 inches wide, 12 inches high, and 18 inches long. The user mechanically rotated a lever and when pressed, it would make an impression of the inked character on the paper. The paper was attached to velvet type belt which rotated when the lever was depressed. Different styles of typeface could be used. The paper traveled via the endless band inside the machine. All the letters were inked, but only the one used would be pressed to the paper. A dial on the front of the machine let the user know how long the document had become and was able to print out pages measuring 15 inches in length. Although the original prototype was destroyed in the fire, Burt’s grandson was able to reconstruct the typographer using a copy of the reissued patent. He did so and displayed the machine at the Columbian Exposition in 1892. Burt is called the “father of the typewriter” but he was so far ahead of his time that few models were sold and it was sold off to Cyrus Spalding in 1830 for $75. Eventually, the machine would be perfected.

My two fingers on a typewriter have never connected with my brain. My hand on a pen does. A fountain pen, of course. Ball-point pens are only good for filling out forms on a plane. – Graham Greene

I just sit at a typewriter and curse a bit. – P. G. Wodehouse

I don’t want anything to do with anything mechanical between me and the paper, including a typewriter, and I don’t even want a fountain pen between me and the paper. – Shelby Foote

A typewriter is a means of transcribing thought, not expressing it. – Marshall McLuhan

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July 22

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 22, 2017

1983:  Martial law is lifted in Poland. General of the Army Wojciech Jaruzelski and the Military Council of National Salvation (WRON) took power illegally, since martial law was only possible during wartime, but it does explain the name of the organization implementing the decree. In March 1981 the Polish government presented plans to the USSR regarding unrest in Poland. Back in October of 1980, Jaruzelski ordered the Polish General Staff to update plans for instituting martial law. This was almost immediately after the Solidarity movement had burst on the scene demanding independent self-government separate from communism and the Soviet Union.

The official decree for martial law came in December 1981. Solidarity was banned and Lech Wałęsa was jailed. The next morning, thousands of soldiers were roaming through the streets in military vehicles. Every major city was affected. A curfew was imposed, national borders were sealed, road access was restricted, phone lines were cut, mail was censored, all classes from grade school through college were suspended, and all independent organizations were criminalized. In the early stages, several dozen people were killed. Officially the number was quite low, later investigations put the number around 90 deaths.

The government imposed a six-day workweek and put all services under government control and ran them as military institutions. If employees misbehaved, they were court-martialed. Eventually, media outlets and schools were “verified” in a process to make sure everyone was member of the political regime. Those who were not able to convince authorities of their subservience were jailed without cause. Martial law induced a nationwide economic crisis. As the government sanctioned price increases, called “economic reforms” even basic goods became scarce.

Although officially ended on this day, government coercion did not simply cease. The economy remained weak. Many of the non-Communist leaders and teachers remained jailed. Hundreds of thousands of Poles fled the country during the 1980s. Between December 1980 and October 1983, 11 flights were hijacked as they left Poland and were forced to land in Berlin. It took until 1986 before the thousands of political prisoners were released and granted a general amnesty. Jaruzelski remained in control of the newly democratized government and was President of the Republic of Poland from July 1989 to December 1990. After communism fell in Poland, Wałęsa was elected as second President and served from 1990 until 1995. Today, Poland is part of the European Union and Andrzej Duda is President, the sixth since the country threw off its Communist rulers.

He who puts out his hand to stop the wheel of history will have his fingers crushed.

The thing that lies at the foundation of positive change, the way I see it, is service to a fellow human being.

Communism is a monopolistic system, economically and politically. The system suppresses individual initiative, and the 21st century is all about individualism and freedom. The development of technology supported these directions.

As a nation we have the right to decide our own affairs, to mould our own future. This does not pose any danger to anybody. Our nation is fully aware of the responsibility for its own fate in the complicated situation of the contemporary world. – all from Lech Wałęsa

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July 21

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 21, 2017

905: King Louis III is blinded. He was born around 880 and when his father Boso, the King of Provence died, seven year old Louis became king. Provence was larger when Boso came into power, but he had lost part of his lands to Rudolph I of Burgundy, as well as much of the rest of the northern portion of his lands. Louis had only the area around Vienne to rule and his mother, Ermengard was elected to act as regent with support from Louis’s uncle, Richard the Justiciar. They went to a relative in spring, emperor Charles the Fat, and received his recognition along with his protection, as he adopted Louis. Charles died the following year and Ermengard went to Arnulf, his successor, for protection along with a trip to the Pope for his blessing. She got both.

In 890, at the Diet of Valence, the secular and religious leaders heard of Louis’s claims and proclaimed him King of Arles, Provence, and Cisjurane Burgundy.  Beginning in 896, Louis began a number of wars with Saracen pirates who looted the coasts. In 900, Louis, grandson of Emperor Louis II was invited to Italy to help local fiefdoms keep control over various portions of the land. He made his way to Rome where he was crowned by Pope Benedict IV in 901. Although Louis had been able to shoo away the Magyar in northern Italy, they did not stay away. In 902 Louis was defeated and sent back to Provence and he promised never to return.

The Italian nobles needed his assistance in 905 and rather than keep the promise made years earlier, Louis again came to their aid. He was successful in his first few meetings with the enemy, but was defeated at Verona. Berengar I, King of Italy, learned of his nemesis’s return and location and in the dead of night, he had his Bavarian troops sneak into Verona and capture Louis. Louis ran to the church of St. Peter but was captured on this day. As punishment for returning to Italy in spite of his promise, he was blinded. He was also forced to relinquish his Italian and imperial crowns.

Louis returned to Vienne and ruled over Provence for several more years. His cousin, Hugh, Count of Arles was the dominant figure in the area and by 911 Louis had ceded most power to Hugh. Hugh was made Margrave of Provence and Marquis of Vienne. Hugh married Louis’s sister. Louis had been betrothed at one time to Byzantine Emperor Leo VI’s daughter but it is unclear whether he ever married her. Louis had a son, but no mention of the mother’s name was recorded. Although Louis styled himself as Roman Emperor until he died, it was his brother in law who succeeded him to the throne and Louis died in obscurity.

Losers make promises they often break. Winners make commitments they always keep. – Denis Waitley

Promises are like crying babies in a theater, they should be carried out at once. – Norman Vincent Peale

Political promises are much like marriage vows. They are made at the beginning of the relationship between candidate and voter, but are quickly forgotten. – Dick Gregory

Keep every promise you make and only make promises you can keep. – Anthony Hitt

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July 20

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 20, 2017

1940: The Arroyo Seco Parkway opens. The California roadway runs along the Arroyo Seco, a seasonal river. The road connected Los Angeles with Pasadena and was noted as the first freeway in Western United States. The six lanes are now part of State Route 101 and begins on the north side of downtown Los Angeles. The designation of freeway, and the move away from parkways was of significance. Freeways are limited access, high speed roads used to connect two points. The roads of the times were much less traveled and cars were not as ubiquitous as today. Parkways were roads through scenic areas, such as parks, hence the name. As more cars hit the roads and more commuters were on them, a better system was needed to get traffic moving with some flow.

The Arroyo Seco (Spanish for “dry gulch, or streambed”) carries rainfall from the San Gabriel Mountains. Waters travel south through Pasadena into the Los Angeles River – when water flows. During the dry season, the riverbed was used as a faster wagon connection between the two cities. The first survey of the area with an eye to a permanent roadway was done in 1895. In 1897, a proposal for a parkway and a second for a commuter cycle path was made. The latter was partially built by Horace Dobbins in 1899 and a 1.25 mile path opened in 1900. The path had a toll booth included but it never produced a profit. It was taken apart within ten years.

Cars became ever more numerous and various plans were put forth. The debate over the exact route and who would pay for it continued for decades. In order to connect a finally approved road, Los Angeles improved the North Figueroa Street to a four lane road. The citizens of Pasadena were worried about traffic patterns halving their city and traffic patterns resulting from the split. Before construction began, there were nine roads and two rail lines crossing the Arroyo Seco and its valley. There would be more bridges needed as part of the project and only four of the original bridges were kept. More bridges in Pasadena were built to connect each side of the city.

The road was designed by Spencer V Cortelyou and AD Griffin with a groundbreaking ceremony on March 22, 1938. The first stretch of road was opened on December 10, 1938 and it contained no bridges. On this day, a 3.7 mile stretch actually connecting Los Angeles to Pasadena opened. The remainder opened on December 30, 1940. The name of the road changed in 1954 when it was called the Pasadena Freeway and it reverted back to Arroyo Seco Parkway in 2010. It covers a total of 8.162 miles. Many of the median plants have been removed for safety features to be added. While state of the art at the time of building, today it is considered to be a narrow and outdated highway. Even so, it has been designated as a State Scenic Highway, National Civil Engineering Landmark, and National Scenic Byway. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 2011.

The road to success is always under construction.- Arnold Palmer

If you don’t like the road you’re walking, start paving another one. – Dolly Parton

If you have men who will only come if they know there is a good road, I don’t want them. I want men who will come if there is no road at all. – David Livingstone

The road is hard, and you have to get accustomed to it. – Miranda Lambert

July 19

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 19, 2017

1845: The Great New York City Fire breaks out at 2.30 AM. The third story of the JL Van Doren, Oil Merchant and Stearin Candle Manufacturer at 34 New Street in Manhattan was the site of the original blaze. They sold whale oil which helped to quickly spread the fire to surrounding wooden buildings. The City Hall alarm bell rang about 3 AM and fire fighters converged on the area. The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) was all volunteer at the time and under the command of Chief Engineer Cornelius Anderson, who was on the scene.

The area of the fire was mostly older buildings and the wooden structures sped the fire along. FDNY personnel were joined by members outside their jurisdiction. Fire chiefs and crews came in from Brooklyn, Newark, and Williamsburg. The Croton aqueduct had been completed in 1842 and was able to provide water for those fighting the blaze. Within a couple hours of starting, the blaze had traveled along to a large, multistoried warehouse occupied by Crocker & Warren, where saltpeter was stored. Water was being pumped on the building even from inside the burning structure, but it still caught fire. All were able to escape the building before it exploded between 3.30 and 4 AM. The burning debris flew outward and began more fires.

While no one died in the explosion, the fire engine at the scene was demolished and several of the firemen were injured. There was speculation gunpowder had also been stored in the warehouse, but this proved erroneous. It took ten  and a half hours for the blaze to be extinguished. In that time 345 buildings were destroyed for a loss of $5 to 10 million or about $129 million today. There was much looting during and after the fire, in both businesses and private residences. A total of 26 civilians and 4 firemen died as much of what is today the Financial District in New York City was destroyed.

This was the last of three major fires in New York City, the others in 1776 and 1835. In 1815, the city had banned new construction of wood frame buildings in the densest parts of the city. The fire was halted by the newer construction after the 1835 fire. The newer stone and masonry buildings with iron roofs and shutters were not consumed in the recent blaze. Even with this improvement so clearly demonstrated, it was seen as a time for more proactive stances to fire prevention and firefighting. The city established the Exempt Fireman’s Company whose members were firemen exempt from militia and jury duty.

If Prometheus was worthy of the wrath of heaven for kindling the first fire upon earth, how ought all the gods honor the men who make it their professional business to put it out?  – John Godfrey Saxe

I can think of no more stirring symbol of man’s humanity to man than a fire engine.  – Kurt Vonnegut

If you put out the fire, you won’t have to jump out the window!  – Andy Freidricks

When a man becomes a fireman his greatest act of bravery has been accomplished.  What he does after that is all in the line of work.  – Edward F. Croker

July 18

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 18, 2017

1290: King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion. When William the Conqueror came to England in 1066, he instituted a feudal system, appointing lords who were beholden to him and allowing them their rule over the serfs. Merchants and Jews received special status with direct subjugation to the King. Jews were not tied to any particular lord but where at the whim of any king. Each king had to review the charter and determine if Jews would remain in England. The Magna Carta did not include rights for Jews. Christians were not permitted to loan money for profit but Jews did not suffer under this restriction, allowing them to fulfill a valuable service in the communities. Over time, this service came to be seen as usury and the Jews came to be seen, in England and all of Europe, as Jesus killers.

In 1218, Henry III became the first king to demand Jews within his reign wear a badge to mark them out. Between 1219-1272 a total of 49 new taxes were placed on Jews for a total of 200,000 marks, an incredibly high amount. In 1275, it became illegal to lend money with interest and Jews had 15 years to adjust. In 1287, Edward I ordered Jews expelled from the duchy of Gascony. He seized all their assets for the crown. Edward returned to England in 1289, deeply in debt. In the summer of 1290 he called for his knights to impose a new, steep tax and in order to make the citizens more willing to pay it, he offered them expulsion of all Jews from England. The tax was passed, and on this day the Jews were officially sent from England.

The Jewish population of the time was small, approximately 2,000 people. They had failed to comply with the Statute of Jewry, and had continued to charge interest on lent money. This continued to make them unpopular and their expulsion was quickly carried out. There seems to have been no violence associated with their removal, although there are some tall tales to the contrary. The Jews left for Scotland, France, the Netherlands, and Poland, all of them at the time still protecting Jews. The Jews would eventually find other nations just as inhospitable and there was wide resettlements and purges throughout the Middle Ages.

Jews stayed away from England until their formal return in 1655 except for a small group at Domus Conversorum. These were a group of Jews who had converted to Christianity and remained in London. On this day, about 80 residents stayed behind with another 48 converts admitted and records end in 1609. Jews remained banished from the country until Oliver Cromwell looked at wealthy Jews in Amsterdam and wished to invite them, and their lucrative trade, back to England. There had been intermittent attempts to bring Jews back, but it took more than 360 years before Cromwell’s invitation was legalized in 1657.

The observant Jew has his own sense of values. Torah Judaism is his blueprint for this life, his target for existence. – Meir Kahan

It is essential that Christians understand this: Every Jew – secular, religious, assimilated, left-wing, right-wing – fears being killed because he is Jewish. This is the best-kept secret about Jews, who are widely perceived as inordinately secure and powerful. But it is the only universally held sentiment among Jews. – Dennis Prager

Being a Jew, one learns to believe in the reality of cruelty and one learns to recognize indifference to human suffering as a fact. – Andrea Dworkin

I am thrice homeless, as a native of Bohemia in Austria, as an Austrian among Germans, and as a Jew throughout the world. Everywhere an intruder, never welcomed. – Gustav Mahler

July 17

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 17, 2017

1981: The Hyatt Regency Kansas City hosts a tea dance which ends in tragedy. The Hyatt opened on July 1, 1980 and at 40 stories high was the tallest building in the state of Missouri. It lost that status in 1986 and is today the sixth tallest building in the state. It is, today, even taller at 45 stories and is now Sheraton Kansas City Hotel at Crown Center. Opening was delayed because of an incident on October 14, 1979 when 2,700 square feet of the atrium roof collapsed as a result of a failure of the connections at the northern end. Repairs were made, construction continued, and the hotel opened. One of the features of the building was a multistory high atrium which was spanned by elevated walkways suspended from the ceiling.

The walkways were made of steel, concrete, and glass and connected the second, third, and fourth floors between the north and south wings. Each was about 120 feet long and weighed about 32 tons. The fourth floor was directly above the second floor with the intermediate floor offset. On this day there were approximately 1,600 people gathered for a tea dance. People were positioned above, looking down on the atrium. There were about 40 people on the second level and even more on the third. There were about 18 on the fourth floor level. Construction difficulties had subtly altered the design. This flaw doubled the load on the connection between the fourth floor walkway support beams and the tie rods carrying the weight of both aligned walkways.

Because of the way it was built, it was barely able to support the dead load weight of the structure itself and the added load of about forty people was more than the connectors could maintain. At 7.05 PM, the fourth floor walkway broke free, crashed into the second floor walkway before both landed on the floor of the atrium. There were 111 dead at the scene and three more would die at the hospital. There were 216 more people suffering non-fatal injuries. Rescue efforts took 14 hours and involved 34 fire trucks and EMS units along with doctors from five area hospitals. Survivors were buried beneath over 60 tons of debris. To add to the confusion, the hotel’s sprinkler system was severed and the atrium was flooded, putting trapped people at risk of drowning.

Investigations into the tragedy revealed the change to the original design for the walkways. Part of the alterations were due to manufacturing issues of the beams. Instead, it was decided to suspend the second floor walkway from the fourth floor itself rather than as originally designed. This was a fatal error. The engineers who approved the final drawing, Jack D Gillum and Associates were found guilty of gross negligence, misconduct, and unprofessional conduct. They were not found to be criminally negligent. They lost their engineering licenses and their right to be an engineering firm. It was the worst structural collapse in the US until 2001 when the World Trade Center collapsed.

The great advantage of a hotel is that it is a refuge from home life. – George Bernard Shaw

We sat around on a hotel balcony with a bottle of wine and tried to figure out how you would go about blowing up a planet. That’s the kind of conversations science fiction writers have when they get together. We don’t talk about football or anything like that. – Kevin J. Anderson

I have walked into the palaces of kings and queens and into the houses of presidents. And much more. But I could not walk into a hotel in America and get a cup of coffee, and that made me mad. – Josephine Baker

I need something truly beautiful to look at in hotel rooms. – Vivien Leigh

July 16

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 16, 2017

1769: La Misión San Diego de Alcalá is founded. Spanish friar Junipero Serra founded the first Franciscan mission in The Californians, a province in New Spain. Translated into English the mission’s name was The Mission of Saint Didacus of Acalá.  Didacus was a Franciscan lay brother and served with the first group of missionaries to the Canary Islands. He died in 1463. The Jesuits had tried to bring their faith to The Californians earlier and their first mission failed. By 1697, they were successful in establishing a foothold. The Jesuits founded a total of 18 missions in the lower ⅔ of Baja California Peninsula. They were expelled in 1767 and the Franciscans were brought in. A new governor was also brought in to oversee the transition.

Serra was born in Spain and came to the Spanish colonies in 1749, landing in Veracruz. His group then had to travel to Mexico City via the Camino Real or royal path. During the trip, Serra was bitten by something which caused his leg to swell. It became infected and never properly healed; it bothered him for the rest of his life. He was placed in charge of the Sierra Gorda Spanish Inquisition in 1752 and found several natives to be witches of the “most detestable and horrible” sort. This was his only report on the matter. Serra was also a practitioner of self punishment. While other missionaries of the time also did this, none were quite so extreme as Serra.

When King Carlos expelled the Jesuits, Serra was brought north. The first Europeans arrived at what is today San Diego by sea when they landed there on April 11. The first overland group arrived on June 29. Many of the early explorers died en route either from starvation or accident. Sierra arrived on July 14 and two days later a cross was raised and Father Serra held the first Mass. With that, the Mission San Diego de Alcalá was officially founded. In just a few months, food had run low and there were still no permanent buildings. The local inhabitants resented the incursion of Spaniards and attacked within a month. They considered abandoning the mission.

Father Serra was fearful of leaving, believing that if abandoned, “centuries might come and go” before any Europeans returned and were able to save the souls, if not the bodies of the natives. Luckily, a supply ship arrived in time to save the fledgling mission. The mission grew and eventually became the city of San Diego which now covers 372 square miles and has a population of 1.4 million people. It is the second largest city in California and the eighth largest in the United States. They mark this date as the founding and the city was incorporated on March 27, 1850. It passed from Spain, to Mexico, to the California Republic before becoming part of the US in 1848.

Thank God I arrived the day before yesterday, the first of the month, at this port of San Diego, truly a fine one, and not without reason called famous. – Junipero Serra

Well, when I was a kid, I grew up in San Diego next to the ocean. The ocean was my friend – my best friend. – Robert Ballard

The bridge to Coronado Island off San Diego was built because the mob had a hotel there and needed a way to get people out there. – Don Winslow

I need to surf – surf and yoga. Whenever I’m in L.A., I go down to San Diego to surf for the weekend, and I always come back perfect. – Rodrigo Santoro

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