Little Bits of History

June 28

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 28, 2017

1914: Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria dies. He was born in Graz, Austria, the eldest son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria in 1863. When he was 11, his cousin Duke Francis V of Modena, died and left Franz Ferdinand his heir on the condition he add Este to his name and with this done, he became the wealthiest man in Austria. Another cousin, Crown Prince Rudolf committed suicide in 1889 and so Karl Ludwig was next in line for the throne of Austria-Hungary. When Karl died of typhoid fever in 1896, his son, Franz Ferdinand was next in line for the throne.

Like most Hapsburg males, Franz Ferdinand joined the Austro-Hungarian Army at a young age and was rapidly promoted (lieutenant at age fourteen, captain at twenty-two, colonel at twenty-seven, and major general at thirty-one). The years 1892-93 were filled with a trip around the globe and soon after his return, in 1894, he met and fell in love with Countess Sophie Chotek in Prague. Marrying into the family meant one had to have royal lineage and Sophie did not meet the requirements. In 1899, Franz Ferdinand finally got permission from Emperor Franz Joseph to marry but only on the condition that their children not be in line for the throne and Sophie would not share her husband’s rank, title, or privileges.

The couple married on July 1, 1900 with little family in attendance as they boycotted the wedding. Sophie was given titles through the years, but not to match her husband’s title of Archduke. The couple had one daughter and two sons, with a third son stillborn. Franz Ferdinand’s political stance was generally liberal, unless you subscribe to those who typified him as Catholic conservative. He was vocal in his opinion of Hungarian nationalism as a revolutionary threat to the Hapsburg dynasty. While he was in support of other Slavic people, his disagreements with Hungarians was known. He warned that taking a harsh stand against Serbia in their own disagreements with Hungary, would lead to conflict with Russia.

On this day, while in Sarajevo, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Archduke and his wife were together when someone threw a grenade at their car. It missed and hurt those in the car behind. They continued on their tour and their driver took a wrong turn. This brought them into the path of Gavrilo Princip, 19, and part of a group called the Black Hand. Princip was able to shoot first Sophie and then Franz Ferdinand. Both would die of their wounds and the ensuing fight over who would be responsible for the investigation and trial for guilty parties would eventually lead to the start of World War I.

[Sophie] could never share [Franz Ferdinand’s] rank … could never share his splendours, could never even sit by his side on any public occasion.

There was one loophole … his wife could enjoy the recognition of his rank when he was acting in a military capacity. Hence, he decided, in 1914, to inspect the army in Bosnia.

There, at its capital Sarajevo, the Archduke and his wife could ride in an open carriage side by side …

Thus, for love, did the Archduke go to his death. – all from AJP Taylor

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Stonewall

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 28, 2015
Stonewall riots*

Stonewall riots*

June 28, 1969: Police raid the Stonewall Inn. Located in New York City, it was built between 1843 and 1846 as stables. It was turned into a restaurant in 1930 and continued to operate as such until it was gutted by a fire in the mid-1960s. It reopened on March 18, 1967 as a bar owned and operated by the Mafia. It was a meeting place for gays and attracted some of the most marginalized of this subset of clients – drag queens, effeminate young men, male prostitutes, and homeless teenagers. It was often raided and yet, when the police entered on this night as was their routine, they quickly lost control of the situation. A crowd gathered outside Stonewall and sided with the gays against the police. Greenwich Village had more protests the next night and again several nights later.

The late 1960s were a time of social ferment with many social movements gaining momentum. The Civil Rights movement and antiwar demonstrations were part of 60s counterculture as many looked for social equity given to all American citizens. The LGBT community wanted the same things. At the time, it was illegal to practice homosexuality. Gays were tracked by both local police and the FBI. Their gathering places were raided and after arrests, they were vilified in the media with many upstanding citizens not only facing jail time, but losing their jobs and the respect of the community at large. The American Psychiatric Association included homosexuality as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1952 where it remained until 1973.

Homophile groups (what pro LGBT groups were called) advocated for the rights of all citizens, helped with education, and helped to fund cases against “deviant behaviors” for their members. One of the first gay rights groups was the Mattachine Society formed in Los Angeles in 1950. Over time, their focus came to be acceptance of gays into society and respect for their lives. After the World War II, Greenwich Village and Harlem in New York City had sizable homosexual populations. With the raid on one of their posts on this night, they had had enough. At 1.20 AM on this Saturday night, four plainclothes police, two uniformed police and a Detective and Deputy Inspector crashed the party.

The raid did not go as planned. All patrons were to line up and have identification ready. Female police officers were to take all customers dressed as women to the bathroom and check out their physique. Any males would be arrested on the spot. But on this night, the people dressed as women refused to cooperate and the men refused to hand over identification. Everyone recalls that the atmosphere quickly turned and things got out of hand. A crowd assembled outside and things got physical until a full scale riot broke out. The date is commemorated with Gay Pride marches, the first of which took place one year later on June 29, 1970.

Things happened so fast you kind of got caught not knowing. All of a sudden there were police there and we were told to all get in lines and to have our identification ready to be led out of the bar. – Michael Fader

When did you ever see a fag fight back?… Now, times were a-changin’. Tuesday night was the last night for bullshit… Predominantly, the theme [w]as, “this shit has got to stop!” – anonymous Stonewall riots participant

My biggest fear was that I would get arrested. My second biggest fear was that my picture would be in a newspaper or on a television report in my mother’s dress! – Maria Ritter (then known as Steve)

You’ve been treating us like shit all these years? Uh-uh. Now it’s our turn!… It was one of the greatest moments in my life. – Sylvia Rivera (who had been in full drag on the night of the riot)

Also on this day: The Kelly Gang – In 1880, Ned Kelly was captured.
Going Home – In 2000, Elián González was sent back to Cuba.
Conformation Dog Show – In 1859, the first show was held.
Boxed In – In 1948, Dick Turpin won his boxing match.
Battle of Sullivan’s Island – In 1776, one of the first American victories of the Revolutionary War took place.

* “Stonewall riots” by Source. Licensed under Fair use via Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stonewall_riots.jpg#/media/File:Stonewall_riots.jpg

Battle of Sullivan’s Island

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 28, 2014
Battle of Sullivan’s Island

Battle of Sullivan’s Island

June 28, 1776: The first decisive American victory takes place during the American Revolutionary War. The Battle of Sullivan’s Island found the army of South Carolina under William Moultrie facing attack by Great Britain under Peter Parker and Henry Clinton. Fort Sullivan housed 435 militia and had 31 artillery pieces. Also fighting for the Americans were 3 shore batteries and over 6,000 regulars and militia. The British had 2,200 infantry, 2 fourth-rates (a British ship holding between 46 to 60 guns), 6 frigates, and one bomb vessel. Sullivan’s Island is located at the entrance to Charleston Harbor, one of the most important harbors of early American life. This Battle is sometimes also referred to as the First Siege of Charleston since there was a more successful siege in 1780.

The British had planned an earlier expedition to quell the rebellious southern colonies but it was delayed by logistical concerns and bad weather. The expedition finally reached American waters off the coast of North Carolina in May 1776. The conditions there were not in favor of the British, so General Clinton and Admiral Parker decided to act against Charleston, instead. They arrived in early June and landed on Long Island which was near Sullivan’s Island where Colonel Moultrie was in command of a partially constructed fort. Land assault from one island to the next was impossible since the water between the two was too deep to wade and the American defenses made an amphibious landing untenable. The sandy soil and palmetto log construction of the fort made bombardment ineffective.

In 1775 when the Revolutionary War began, Charleston was a center of commerce in the colonies. The citizens banded together in solidarity against their British tax assessors. When word of the Battles of Lexington and Concord reached Charleston, militia recruitment increased. Throughout 1775 and 1776, fresh recruits from the backcountry, also known as the low country because of the marshy conditions, came to the city to enlist. The city’s manufacturers and tradesmen also prepared for war by turning raw material into war goods, useful for the upcoming confrontations. While most of the fighting was taking place around the Siege of Boston, the British thought to capture lands in the South to give them a better base to work from.

Around 9 AM on this day, a British ship fired a gun, signaling their readiness to engage. In less than an hour, nine ships had arrayed themselves in positions facing the fort and as they reached position and dropped anchor, they began to fire. Moultrie’s men had a limited supply of gunpowder and so had to judiciously pace their shots. They took time and made sure that each shot counted and their guns, according to a British observer, were “exceedingly well directed”. During maneuvers, three British ships were grounded on a sandbar and taken out of action. Moultrie concentrated attacks on the two large man-of-war ships and managed to destroy most of the rigging. As their gunpowder ran low, supplies were shipped in from the mainland so they could continue. The British were driven off and Charleston was safe – for a time.

Always. Ye don’t win with defense–ye only hold the other feller off, or wear him down. Attack and have done with it! – Tamora Pierce

If you suffer an attack your best ally is to keep calm. – Michelangelo Saez

Is there any instinct more deeply implanted in the heart of man than the pride of protection, a protection which is constantly exerted for a fragile and defenceless creature? – Honoré de Balzac

Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength; attacking, a superabundance of strength. – Sun Tzu

Also on this day: The Kelly Gang – In 1880, Ned Kelly was captured.
Going Home – In 2000, Elián González was sent back to Cuba.
Conformation Dog Show – In 1859, the first show was held.
Boxed In – In 1948, Dick Turpin won his boxing match.

Going Home

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 28, 2013
Elián González being rescued

Elián González being rescued

June 28, 2000: Elián González returns to Cuba. It is only 90 miles from Cuba to Key West, Florida, but it is a world of difference politically and ideologically. Fidel Castro’s Cuba was oppressive. Cubans found at sea by either the US or Cuba were returned to Cuba. Usually, if the fugitives could make landfall, they were permitted to stay. This was called the “wet feet, dry feet” rule. Fugitives who were returned to Communist Cuba were monitored by the US Interest Section in Havana. The distance from Cuba to Miami is about twice as far as to Key West. Miami is 34% Cuban, about 1.7 million people, and is the usual destination for refugees.

In November 1999 Elián, his mother, and 12 others left Cuba on a small boat with a defective engine. The motor broke and all aboard tried to bail out water pouring in during a storm. Elián, only 5-years-old, was set in an inner tube for safety. He fell asleep and awoke to a nightmare. The boat sunk in the 10-13 feet waves. The refugees clung to inflated rubber floats as long as they could. Only three people survived the storm. Elián’s mother died at sea. The survivors were picked up by fisherman who turned them over to the US Coast Guard. According to the wet feet, dry feet rule, they should have been sent back to Cuba.

The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) handed the young boy over to his paternal great-uncle, Lázaro González. Elián’s father, Juan Miguel, had called his uncle in Miami telling the older man that Elián and his mother had left Cuba without his knowledge and to be on the lookout for them. With the backing of the Cuban-American population in Miami, the US Gonzálezes fought to keep the young boy in the States. They claimed his mother had sacrificed her life to get her son to freedom.

The fate of the young boy captured the nation’s heart. In January, the boy’s grandmothers flew to Miami to ask for his return to Cuba. Juan Miguel wrote open letters to the US asking for his son’s return. Legal battles were waged, won, or lost. Early on April 22, 2000 SWAT-equipped agents and 130 INS personnel surrounded the house and Elián was removed at gunpoint. Elián was taken to Andrews Air Force Base and reunited with his father. More legal battles were waged and it was decided Elián was too young to ask for asylum and he was returned to Cuba with his father.

“Asylum seekers are not looking for an asylum, just for a good place to live.” – Loesje

“Our contest is not only whether we ourselves shall be free, but whether there shall be left to mankind an asylum on earth for civil and religious liberty.” – Samuel Adams

“Our first responsibility is to protect the American people and we cannot put on blinders to expect that everyone who seeks asylum does so in good faith.” – Bill Shuster

“These reports are deeply worrying. Asylum seekers are being treated as packages to be processed and removed rather than as very vulnerable human beings.” – Maeve Sherlock

This article first appeared at Examiner.com in 2009. Editor’s update: Elián’s father has been interviewed several times since his son’s return. In 2004, a video of Elián was shown, but Miguel declined having interviews with his son, stating he was afraid of reporters. By the next year Elián himself was interviewed and said Fidel Castro was more than just a friend and like a father to him. In December 2006, Fidel was unable to attend Elián’s birthday party so Raul Castro went in his stead. Earlier that year, the US Court of Appeals affirmed a dismissal of an excessive force lawsuit brought concerning the removal of Elián from his relative’s house. In June 2008 Elián, then 15-years-old, began military school after joining the Young Communist Union of Cuba.

Also on this day: The Kelly Gang – In 1880, Ned Kelly was captured.
Conformation Dog Show – In 1859, the first show was held.
Boxed In – In 1948, Dick Turpin won his boxing match.

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Boxed In

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 28, 2012

Dick Turpin boxing

June 28, 1948: Dick Turpin beats Vince Hawkins for the middleweight championship title in Britain. He was the oldest of the three Turpin boxing brothers, although not the most famous. He was the first black man to gain the championship title for Britain and the Commonwealth. He was 27 at the time of the bout. Lionel, his father and a black man from British Guyana, married Beatrice Whitehouse, a white woman from England. Randolph was the most famous of the boxing brothers and another middleweight. Jack was the third brother and a featherweight.

Dick’s first professional fight was held on March 30, 1939 and was against Jimmy Griffiths. Turpin lost on points over ten rounds, but a rematch held on April 17 saw Turpin taking the win. Over the next decade, his win-loss record continued to show far more marks in the win column. In May 1948 he knocked out Richard Bos Murphy in the first round to become the Commonwealth champion. His next bout, on this day, found him squared off against Hawkins at Villa Park in Birmingham. Turpin won on points over fifteen rounds. He now held both titles.

Turpin began boxing in international venues and successfully defended his home titles for the next year. He lost the Commonwealth title in 1949 and the British title in 1950. His fight stats show 104 fights with 77 wins, 33 by knock out and the rest on points. He suffered 20 losses, six draws, and one no contest. He went from boxing to coaching his younger brother, Randy. Dick was almost eight years older than his brother. The younger man began training at the Leamington Boys’ Club, just as all the Turpin brothers had. Randy turned professional in 1946 at the age of eighteen.

Randy went on to become the best Middleweight boxer in Europe in the 1940s and 50s. His brother set up a string of contests for the young fighter. Randy won his first fifteen fights ten of them by knock outs, one TKO and the others on points – before he came to a draw. He went on to meet Sugar Ray Robinson on July 10, 1951 where Randy took the World Middleweight title after a fifteen round fight. Robinson won the title back in September of that year. Randy fought 75 times and won 66 bouts with 45 KO decisions. He lost eight times, five by KO and had 1 draw.

If you screw things up in tennis, it’s 15-love. If you screw up in boxing, it’s your ass. – Randall Tex Cobb

Boxing is the ultimate challenge. There’s nothing that can compare to testing yourself the way you do every time you step in the ring. – Sugar Ray Leonard

A champion is someone who gets up when he can’t. – Jack Dempsey

Attack is only one half of the art of boxing. – Georges Carpentier

Also on this day:

The Kelly Gang – In 1880, Ned Kelly was captured.
Going Home – In 2000, Elián González was sent back to Cuba.
Conformation Dog Show – In 1859, the first show was held.

Conformation Dog Show

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 28, 2011

What the judges are looking at.

June 28, 1859:  The first conformation dog show is held. This type of dog show is also referred to as breed shows and are shows where only specific breeds are evaluated. It is a method of seeing which of the purebred specimens conform best to the established breed type as laid down in the accepted breed standards. Judges are certified to evaluate only specific breeds, usually all in the same Group. There are a very few “All Breed” judges, as well. This first show only included pointers and setters and was held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in England.

While this type of dog show originated in England, there are now shows held around the globe. The UK began this tradition on this date. The US, Canada, Australia, and Colombia also participate in these types of shows. The Kennel Club sponsors many of these shows, often holding several competitions each year. There are competitions for adults dogs as well as puppies. Puppies are dogs under 6 months old while older dogs can be subcategorized into junior or limit [intermediate] classifications. There is also distinction between male and female dogs.

There are some prestigious shows with one of the most famous probably being the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show. This was established in 1877 and is held yearly at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Crufts is held in the United Kingdom and began in 1891. It is the world’s largest and most prestigious show, according to the Guinness Book of Records. The four-day event is held at the National Exhibition Center in Birmingham. The World Dog Show is sponsored by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale and the location moves from year to year. In 2008 it was held in Sweden, in 2009 the event was held in Slovakia, and in 2010 it was held in Denmark. This year’s host will be France and the show runs from July 7 through 10.

The practice of breeding dogs for conformation has been hotly debated. It is said to be a type of eugenics and the breeds are being refined solely on the basis of appearance. Some working dog breed organizations have struggled to keep their breeds from being listed in the AKC due to their fears that the dogs’ characteristics which make them wonderful work animals will be bred out of the line. They also fear that too many of the breed will be siphoned off as show dogs and they will not have enough dogs to do the work they were meant for. There are also health issue concerns with this interbreeding practice.

“Whoever said you can’t buy happiness forgot little puppies.” – Gene Hill

“A really companionable and indispensable dog is an accident of nature. You can’t get it by breeding for it, and you can’t buy it with money. It just happens along.” – E B White

“Even the tiniest Poodle or Chihuahua is still a wolf at heart.” – Dorothy Hinshaw

“I’ve seen a look in dogs’ eyes, a quickly vanishing look of amazed contempt, and I am convinced that basically dogs think humans are nuts.” – John Steinbeck

Also on this day:
The Kelly Gang – In 1880, Ned Kelly was captured.
Going Home – In 2000, Elián González was sent back to Cuba.

The Kelly Gang

Posted in History by patriciahysell on June 28, 2010

Ned Kelly's armor (Photo by Chensiyuan)

June 28, 1880: Ned Kelly is captured at Glenrowan, Australia. Kelly was born in 1854 in Beveridge, Victoria, Australia. He was the oldest of eight children. There was a vast extended family from both of his parents. His father who was transported to Australia for stealing a pig, died when Ned was twelve. He was forced to quit school and support the family who moved to Glenrowan.

There were plenty of charges brought against many of the extended family, but less than half resulted in guilty verdicts. This may point to the fact that the family was unfairly targeted. Ned, himself, was first arrested in 1869 when he was 14. He was in trouble with the law for the rest of his life. In 1878, after a shootout with police, Ned, his brother Dan, Joe Byrne and Steve Hart formed the Kelly Gang. They robbed two banks.

While robbing a bank and holding citizens hostage, Ned dictated The Jerilderie Letter. In it, he described the mistreatment of his family in particular and Irish Catholics in general and discussed the possibility of an uprising against the oppressors. On June 27, 1880, the gang entered Glenrowan Inn and held approximately 70 people hostage in order to elude police capture. It failed. At dawn on this date, Ned Kelly emerged from the Inn dressed in a suit of armor and was captured. He was sentenced to death and was hung on November 11.

Ned Kelly’s pursuit and capture were romanticized by the locals. The police actions were seen as both punitive and unsavory. In face, a Commission to study the case either reprimanded, dismissed, or terminated many of those involved. The Commission did not give the Kelly Gang a free pass as their actions were illegal. Changes in police procedure followed and Ned Kelly became a hero in the style of the Billy the Kid here in the US or Robin Hood in the UK.

“Criminals do not die by the hands of the law; they die by the hands of other men.” – George Bernard Shaw

“While the State may respectfully require obedience on many matters, it cannot violate the moral nature of a man, convert him into a serviceable criminal, and expect his loyalty and devotion.” – Liane Norman

“While there is a lower class I am in it; while there is a criminal element I am of it; while there is a soul in prison, I am not free.” – Eugene Debs

“There’s a difference between criminals and crooks. Crooks steal. Criminals blow some guy’s brains out. I’m a crook.” – Ronald Biggs

Also on this day, in 2000 Elian Gonzalez went back to Cuba.

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