March 8, 1817: The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is founded. Their history began on May 17, 1792 when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by 24 stockbrokers outside 68 Wall Street in New York City. On this date, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed themselves the New York Stock & Exchange Board with Anthony Stockholm as their first president. The Exchange was located in a rented room leased back in 1792 for $200 per month. That location was destroyed in the Great Fire of New York in 1835 and they were forced to move to temporary lodgings. The name changed again in 1863 to the current one and two years later they moved to 10-12 Broad Street.
Beginning on September 20, 1873 the NYSE closed for ten days because of the Panic of 1873. The cause of the panic and ensuing depressed economy, both in America and Europe, remains under debate. It took about six years to recover. Once the economy rebounded, stocks were once again soaring and between 1896 and 1901 the volume of stocks traded increased six times as the markets expanded. With all this business, a new headquarters was needed. Eight New York architects were invited to compete for designing the new building. George B. Post’s neoclassical design won and the Exchange building at 10 Broad Street as well as adjacent buildings were demolished, beginning May 10, 1901.
The new building, located at 18 Broad Street cost $4 million to build and opened on April 22, 1903. The trading floor was 109 x 140 feet and one of the largest volumes of space in the city at that time. There was also included a skylight in the 72-foot high ceiling. The building’s façade has six tall columns topped with Corinthian capitals. The marble pediment over these contains high-relief sculptures by John Quincy Adams Ward with Paul Wayland Bartlett helping with the design. The Piccirilli Brothers carved the design depicting Integrity Protecting the Works of Man. More room in separate spaces was added in 1922, 1969, and 1988. Both of the last two additions were done with state of the art technology and both were closed in 2007.
The NYSE is the world’s largest stock exchange by market capitalization. It’s listed companies are held at $16.613 trillion as of May 2013 (there has been a rising market since this date). The average daily trading value was about $169 billion for 2013. The trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street today and is comprised of four rooms used for trades. A fifth room is located at 30 Broad Street but it was closed in 2007. The main building as described above was listed as a National Historic Landmark in 1978. After a merger in 2007, the NYSE Euronext took over operation. In December 2012, it was announced that the company was sold to Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) for $8 billion and it would be headqurtered in Atlanta, Georgia.
The love of family and the admiration of friends is much more important than wealth and privilege. – Charles Kuralt
In a country well governed, poverty is something to be ashamed of. In a country badly governed, wealth is something to be ashamed of. – Confucius
It is neither wealth nor splendor; but tranquility and occupation which give you happiness. – Thomas Jefferson
It is not the creation of wealth that is wrong, but the love of money for its own sake. – Margaret Thatcher
Also on this day: Galaxies – In 1934, a picture from the Hubble telescope showed galaxies as numerous as the stars in the Milky Way.
Georgia – In 1957, the Georgia Memorial to Congress was adopted.
New York Going to the Dogs - In 1894, the first US pet license law went into effect.
Vietnam - In 1965, 3,500 US Marines were deployed to South Vietnam.
March 7, 1965: Bloody Sunday arrives in Selma, Alabama. American Civil Rights were being trampled and African-Americans were pushing for a more equitable policy. The sparking of this and the two following marches, all taking place in March 1965 was complex. There were issues with low voter registration among African-Americans and this was a campaign to increase voting rights, especially in the South. These protest marches were also in response to the deaths of Jimmie Lee Jackson (unarmed when shot by an Alabama State Trooper on February 26, 1965) and Rev. James Reeb (beaten while marching in Selma and died two days later from head injuries sustained).
African-Americans formed the Dallas County Voters league (DCVL) in 1963 and organizers from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) helped bring people together. Not only blacks marched for their rights. They were supported by whites who believed in civil rights and the intrinsic value of being able to cast a vote in any election. White registrants were not letting blacks register in Alabama. The DCVL asked Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to help with the march. Together, they were able to bring 600 marchers to peacefully protest the exclusion from the electoral process. They were met by state troopers on the Edmund Pettus Bridge. All white males over the age of 21 had been called to the courthouse earlier in the day and deputized. They formed a line at the end of the bridge.
The protesters were led by John Lewis and Rev. Hosea Williams. As the reverend tried to speak with the police, he was told there was nothing to discuss and seconds later the police began shoving demonstrators and knocking them to the ground where they were beaten with nightsticks. Tear gas was thrown into the crowd and then police on horseback charged into the chaos. The entire event was televised causing a horrified reaction from outside Alabama. Just two days later, on March 9, a second protest took place with 2,500 people turned back at the bridge.
A third march began on March 16 with protesters heading to Montgomery. They averaged about 10 miles per day along US Route 80. Protesters were protected by 2,000 US Army soldiers and 1,900 members of the Alabama National Guard under Federal command. Also present were FBI agents and Federal Marshals. They arrived in Montgomery on March 24 and made their way to the Alabama State Capitol on March 25. The marches turned the tide of public opinion. The brutal treatment of peacefully marching protesters was transformative. President Lyndon Johnson met with Governor George Wallace to discuss civil rights. Eventually, laws were brought into place that protected the voting right of all citizens regardless of race.
There are those who say to you – we are rushing this issue of civil rights. I say we are 172 years late. – Hubert H. Humphrey
Half a century ago, the amazing courage of Rosa Parks, the visionary leadership of Martin Luther King, and the inspirational actions of the civil rights movement led politicians to write equality into the law and make real the promise of America for all her citizens. – David Cameron
Martin Luther King Jr. is remembered as our prince of peace, of civil rights. We owe him something major that will keep his memory alive. – Morgan Freeman
The civil rights movement wasn’t easy for anybody. – Sammy Davis, Jr.
Also on this day: Gilbert and Sullivan – In 1896, The Grand Duke opened at the Savoy Theatre. The last G&S work.
One Ringy-Dingy – In 1876, Bell received a patent for his telephone.
Shrigley Abduction – In 1827, Ellen Turner was kidnapped.
Phyllis Diller – In 1955, the star began an 87 week run at The Purple Onion.
March 6, 1943: Freedom from Want by Norman Rockwell is published in The Saturday Evening Post. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1941 State of the Union Address is also known as the Four Freedoms speech. In that address, Roosevelt listed the four freedoms that should be available to all Earthlings, not just Americans. Rockwell did a series of four oil paintings of the Four Freedoms. Each picture measured about 46 by 35 inches. This was the third picture in the series. Each of the pictures was featured in The Post with Freedom of Speech appearing on February 20, Freedom of Worship was included on February 27, and Freedom from Fear followed on March 13. The most famous of these is Freedom from Want, also called The Thanksgiving Picture.
Rockwell produced 322 magazine covers for The Saturday Evening Post. He began working with them in 1916 and his last cover was December 16, 1963 and was his Kennedy Memorial cover. During the 1950s his popularity was rivaled only by Walt Disney as both were popular visual artists. During World War I, Rockwell had been second fiddle to more established artists and under scrutiny from editor George Horace Lorimer. But after the editorship changed hands in 1937, Rockwell was much less restricted. During World War II, many of his covers showed the human side of the American war effort. His covered encouraged the purchase of war bonds, women working outside the home, and men joining in the war effort.
Rockwell was born in New York City in 1894 to a family who had been in America even before it was America with his earliest ancestor travelling from England to present day Connecticut in 1635. Norman transferred to the Chase Art School at the age of 14 and continued to study at that National Academy of Design. He went on to the Art Students League where he was able to produce work good enough for publication. In 1913, Rockwell became the art editor for Boys’ Life published by the Boy Scouts of America, a place that had already published some of his art. He was 19 at the time and held the job for three years before moving on.
While working with The Post, he had many famous paintings. Some of the more famous were these four paintings. Also well known was Rosie the Riveter, The Problem We All Live With, Saying Grace, and the Willie Gillis series. After four decades with the same magazine, Rockwell went to work for Look magazine for the next ten years. He was commissioned to paint Presidential portraits for Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. One of his last paintings was a portrait of Judy Garland in 1969. He died of emphysema in 1978 at the age of 84.
The secret to so many artists living so long is that every painting is a new adventure. So, you see, they’re always looking ahead to something new and exciting. The secret is not to look back.
I’ll never have enough time to paint all the pictures I’d like to.
Everyone in those days expected that art students were wild, licentious characters. We didn’t know how to be, but we sure were anxious to learn.
No man with a conscience can just bat out illustrations. He’s got to put all his talent and feeling into them! – all from Norman Rockwell
Also on this day: Edgar Allan Poe – In 1831, Poe was expelled from West Point.
Missouri Compromise – In 1820, the Missouri Compromise was signed into law.
Remember the Alamo – In 1836, the Alamo fell.
Aches and Pains – In 1899, aspirin was patented.
March 5, 1982: Venera 14 lands. She was part of the Soviet Venera program whose purpose was the exploration of Venus. Venera 13 and 14 were identically built and launched within five days of each other. There was a distinct advantage to launching both vessels in 1981 as the planets were better aligned at that time. Venera 13 was launched on October 30 and on November 4, at 5:31 AM UTC Venera 14 was sent aloft via a Proton Booster Plus Upper Stage and Escape Stages rocket.
Venera, which means Venus, had both a cruise stage and a descent lander. The cruise stage flew by the planet and acted as a data relay for the landing portion. After the lander succumbed to the pressures of the planet, the cruise stage continued on to an orbit around the sun. It contained several different measurement instruments and took readings before, during, and after the Venus flyby. Included were a gamma-ray spectrometer, UV grating monochromator, electron and proton spectrometers, gamma-ray burst detectors, solar wind plasma detectors, and two-frequency transmitters.
The landing vessel was hermetically sealed under pressure. Most of the instrumentation and electronics were mounted on a ring-shaped landing platform which was topped by an antenna. The design had to withstand the inhospitable planetary surface. Venus is smaller than Earth and the atmospheric pressure is 92 times that of Earth and mostly composed of carbon dioxide. Even less friendly is the temperature which measures at a mean of 863⁰ F. It is the hottest planet in the Solar System. Holding in the heat is an opaque layer of reflective sulfuric acid clouds which makes it impossible for the surface to be viewed from space using only visible light.
Despite these challenges, Venera made landfall and was able to carry out the experiments as planned. A parachute deployed after the craft reached the atmosphere and detached about 30 miles above the ground. Simple airbraking was used to continue to lower the vehicle to the ground. It landed about 600 miles southwest of 13′s landing site. The only mishap was the lens cap to the camera fell in the exact place where a probe was scheduled to measure a soil sample and it hit the lens cap instead. The planetary mission was expected to last 32 minutes before the pressure and heat damaged the ship. Instead, it was able to continue to gather data and send it back to Earth for 57 minutes. With newer technology available, the old pictures have been processed using a more accurate system and giving us even better pictures than could have been expected so many decades before.
Venus favors the bold. – Ovid
The Venus transit is not a spectacle the way a total solar eclipse is a spectacle. – Neil deGrasse Tyson
I don’t think it is an easy thing to write and expect to be commercial, even if you are from Venus and a hermaphrodite. – A. S. Byatt
There is good evidence that Venus once had liquid water and a much thinner atmosphere, similar to Earth billions of years ago. But today the surface of Venus is dry as a bone, hot enough to melt lead, there are clouds of sulfuric acid that reach a hundred miles high and the air is so thick it’s like being 900 meters deep in the ocean. – Bill Nye
Also on this day: The Royal Italian Opera – In 1856, the Royal Italian Opera house burned to the ground.
Stick ‘Em Up – In 1836, Samuel Colt developed a new type of gun.
Boston Massacre - In 1770, five men were killed during a riot in Boston.
Iron Curtain – In 1946, Winston Churchill first publicly used the term “Iron Curtain”.
March 4, 1890: The Forth Rail Bridge opens. The cantilever bridge is located in Edinburgh, Scotland and crosses the Firth of Forth. It was opened by then Prince of Wales and later King, Edward VII. Until 1917, it was the longest single cantilever bridge span in the world but it was replaced in that category by the Quebec Bridge (longest span is 1,800 feet). Today, it remains the second longest cantilever bridge span and measures 1,710 feet in length. There are two of these spans. Today, the bridge is owned by Network Rail Infrastructure Limited.
Before the bridge was built, ferries were used to cross the river. In 1805, a pair of tunnels was proposed, one running in each direction, however it was rejected. In 1818, James Anderson presented a design for a three-span suspension bridge but his plan called for only 2,500 tons of iron and it would not have lasted long against the wind shear in the region. Sir Thomas Bouch was designing a suspension bridge in 1879 when his Tay Bridge failed and collapsed while a train was travelling across it, killing all aboard. His credibility was dashed, as well, and a new design and designer were considered. Sir John Fowler and Sir Benjamin Baker were called upon to submit designs and the bridge was built by Sir William Arrol & Co. with Allen Stewart as resident engineer.
Even today, it is considered to be an engineering marvel. The bridge measures 1.6 miles in total length and is 151 feet above the high tide watermark. There are double tracks for passage in both directions. There are two main spans each measuring 1,710 feet and two side spans which are each 680 feet. There are 15 approach spans of 168 feet each. Each of the main spans is made up of two 680 feet cantilever arms which support the central 350 foot truss span. The weight of the bridge superstructures is 50,513 long tons (51,324 tons) which includes the 6.5 million rivets holding it together. Also used were 640,000 cubic feet of granite.
The Forth Bridge was the first major construction in Britain to use steel. The Eiffel Tower was built around the same time and was made using wrought iron. Using the Bessemer process produced steel with unpredictable strength, making it unsuitable for structural engineering. In 1875, the Siemens-Martin open-hearth process was developed and the steel was of consistent quality making it feasible to use for large structural projects like this. The 64,000 tons of steel used in the bridge were provided by two mills, one in Scotland and one in Wales. It took seven years to build and at its peak, there were 4,600 men working on it. There were 63 deaths and hundreds of men were left crippled by serious accidents. Eight men were pulled from the river by boats positioned under the construction site. Today, 190 – 200 trains cross the bridge per day.
Don’t build a bridge if you want to use the pillars of doubt and suspicion. - Tasneem Hameed
The youth gets together his materials to build a bridge to the moon, or, perchance, a palace or temple on the earth, and, at length, the middle-aged man concludes to build a woodshed with them. – Henry David Thoreau
Your problem is to bridge the gap which exists between where you are now and the goal you intend to reach. – Earl Nightingale
The hardest thing in life to learn is which bridge to cross and which to burn. – David Russell
Also on this day: I’ll Drink to That – In 1634, the first tavern opened in the American colonies – in Boston.
Three Ships Go Sailing – In 1493, Columbus’s ship returns to Lisbon, Portugal.
Collingwood School Fire - In 1908, the Collinwood school fire occurred.
France - In 1790, France was divided into 83 departments.
March 3, 1910: J.D. Rockefeller, Jr. retires in order to give more time to philanthropic efforts. J.D. Rockefeller, Sr. began Standard Oil which became one of the most successful businesses and the most successful oil company in the country. Junior was his fifth child and only son. He joined his father’s company in 1897 after graduating from Brown University with a Bachelor of Arts. During college he was involved in the Glee and Mandolin Clubs, taught Bible classes and was the President of his Junior Class. He also took several social science classes and behaved differently than other rich men’s sons. He stayed with the company for 13 years and rose to director. He also was the director is JP Morgan’s US Steel Company which formed in 1901.
John Archbold was both the head of Standard Oil after Senior left and involved in a political bribing scandal revealed by the Hearst publication empire. Junior resigned from the business side in order to “purify” his ongoing philanthropy. Junior and Senior, along with Frederick Taylor Gates formed the Rockefeller Foundation in 1913. Their mission was “to promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world.” Gates was Senior’s main philanthropic advisor. The charter for the Foundation was accepted formally by New York State on May 14, 1913. The Rockefellers were drawn to large-scale philanthropy by the example of Andrew Carnegie’s essay, The Gospel of Wealth. After reading the essay, Senior donated the first of what would become $35 million in gifts to fund the creation of the University of Chicago.
The idea for founding the tax-exempt foundation began in 1901 but it took five years before Gates revived the idea in the hopes of keeping the heirs from harm with the influx of all that money. In 1909, Senior signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three trustees – Junior, Gates, and Harold McCormick. It was projected to take $100 million to endow the Foundation. They applied for a federal charter, but even secretly meeting with President Taft didn’t overcome the distrust caused by an ongoing antitrust case against Standard Oil. Instead, they decided to simply apply for a state charter.
Junior’s letter to Nicholas Butler in June of 1932 was used to push the nation to the repeal of Prohibition. The remarkable aspect of the letter was the Junior himself was a lifelong teetotaler. He gave money to diverse causes, including critical funding to Margaret Sanger. He continued works started by his father and expanded the focus of the Rockefeller Foundation far beyond the original intent, not always with the best results. He supported the arts and education. He purchased a tract of land in New York City and then donated it so the headquarters for the United Nations headquarters could be built. In all, he gave $537 million over his lifetime to philanthropic endeavors. He died in 1960 at the age of 86.
Think of giving not as a duty but as a privilege. – John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
The success of each is dependent upon the success of the other. – John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
Don’t be afraid to give up the good to go for the great. – John D. Rockefeller, Sr.
I believe in the dignity of labor, whether with head or hand; that the world owes no man a living but that it owes every man an opportunity to make a living. – John D. Rockefeller, Sr.
Also on this day: Vincent van Gogh – In 1853, Vincent van Gogh was born.
Football – No, Soccer – In 1891, the Penalty Spot Kick was created.
Comstock Law – In 1873, The Comstock Law was enacted in the US.
Panic - In 1943, 173 people were killed at Bethnal Green during a bombing raid over London.
March 2, 1882: Queen Victoria survives the eighth assassination attempt or assault on her royal personage. Roderick McLean attempted to shoot the Queen with a pistol. He had mailed her a poem and she made only a curt reply. With his feelings so wounded, there was nothing left to do but kill her. His attempt failed and he was tried for high treason. On April 20, 1882 he was found “not guilty, but insane” after a five minute deliberation by the jury. He lived until 1921 as a resident of Broadmoor Asylum. The verdict did not please the Queen and she asked that English law be changed so that any further cases like this would result in a verdict of “guilty, but insane” instead.
William Topaz McGonagall wrote a poem commemorating McLean’s attempt on the Queen’s life. The Scottish poet was also a weaver and actor. He won his greatest fame for writing terrible, awful, nasty, horrific poetry. He never seemed to grasp the concept of how bad his poetry was and managed to have about 200 of his poems survive. He was known as Britain’s worst poet. He would be invited to give recitations and these events were memorialized in the news of the day. The audience seemed to enjoy his performance but not because of the quality of his poems, but rather as a comic music hall character. His inability to use metaphor or to scan properly seemed to result in merriment for the audience. He is one of the most unintentionally amusing dramatic poets and some of his work remains available today.
Queen Victoria was born in 1819 and began her reign in 1837. She was not just Queen of Britain, but also Empress of India. Her father was the fourth son of King George III, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Stratheran. Until 1817, Princess Charlotte of Wales was the only legitimate grandchild of George III and her death in 1817 led to a succession crisis. This pushed the surviving unmarried children of George III to marry and produce offspring. Prince Edward married a widowed princess from Germany who already had two children from her first husband. Victoria was their only child. Edward died in 1820 and Victoria was raised in a secluded environment, protected by her mother. She was fifth in line for the throne at the time of her birth.
Through a series of deaths, first her father and grandfather, then her cousins, and finally her uncles, Victoria became heiress presumptive in 1830 to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Duchess of Kent would be regent should King William die before Victoria’s eighteenth birthday and she was not trusted by the King. He made a vow to live until Victoria was eighteen. He lived until 1837 and Victoria had just turned eighteen less than a month before. Victoria fell madly in love Prince Albert and they were wed on February 10, 1840. They had nine children before Albert died in 1861. The Queen never recovered from the loss. She died in 1901 at the age of 81 having reigned for 63 years – longer than any other British monarch and longer than any other woman in the world.
The important thing is not what they think of me, but what I think of them.
We are not interested in the possibilities of defeat. They do not exist.
I feel sure that no girl would go to the altar if she knew all.
Great events make me quiet and calm; it is only trifles that irritate my nerves. – all from Queen Victoria
Also on this day: The Beatles – In 1963, The Beatles released their first LP.
We Got Your Number – In 1925, the Joint Board on Interstate Highways was formed.
Barings Bank Collapse – In 1995, Nick Leeson was arrested for fraud in connection with the bank’s collapse.
Women Only – In 1903, the Martha Washington Hotel opened.
March 1, 1700: The Swedish calendar takes effect. The goal of implementing this peculiar-to-Sweden calendar was to bring the country and her possessions into line with the Gregorian calendar without making an instant leap from the Julian calendar then in use. It was decided that rather than jump forward the eleven days between the two systems, Sweden would simple drop the leap year days for the next forty years and eventually they would be aligned with the calendar used by much of the world. They dropped the leap year day during this year and then promptly abandoned the idea.
Since they did not follow their own plan, they matched neither calendar and had their own date for all of their colonies. This became inconvenient enough so that on March 1, 1712, they reverted back to the Julian calendar as proclaimed by King Charles XII. However, this calendar was not aligned with the solar year and it made planning the date for Easter difficult. It did give Sweden the unique date of February 30, 1712 to realign their trial calendar with the older one. Finally, in 1753, again on March 1, they finally adopted the more accurately aligned Gregorian calendar. Because Easter is based on an older Jewish calendar which is a lunar calendar, the whole system was in chaos.
Julius Caesar had the same issues back when he assumed control of the Roman Empire. The Romans were supposed to add an intercalary month to the year when it was needed to bring the calendar back in line with solar year. Certain dates were considered auspicious and sometimes adding to the calendar would have interfered with actual battles and wars which were even more important than when to plant crops. Since the entire thing was out of alignment, the Julian calendar neatened things up. Unfortunately, the time it takes the planet to make one full rotation around the sun is not 365 days on the dot. Instead, it takes 365 days and 6 hours – about. The tropical year is around 11 minutes and 14 seconds less than that.
This precise type of measurement was not available in Rome or not as important. It took hundreds and hundreds of years before the calendars were no longer accurate enough to start bothering the citizens of the world, or at least Europe and the Americas. So further refinements were made and backed by Pope Gregory XIII. All this took place after the Protestant Reformation and countries that were not Catholic were somewhat hesitant to adopt the new calendar since it was seen as overbearing nonsense from the Vatican. The longer the Julian calendar was used, the further from alignment with the true solar year it became. More and more countries adopted the new Gregorian calendar. Today, it is used worldwide for international transactions although there are still many other calendars used locally and religiously.
I’ve been on a calendar, but I’ve never been on time. – Marilyn Monroe
I don’t wait for the calendar to figure out when I should live life. – Gene Simmons
I’ve never been one of those who wanted to fill my calendar up 90 percent of the time. – Gilbert Gottfried
You are right that I don’t have a lot of spare time because I love to stay busy and keep my calendar full. – Kiana Tom
Also on this day: Peace Corps – In 1961, the Peace Corps was formed.
Saint David – In 589, St. David of Wales died.
Salem Witch Trials Begin – In 1692, the mass hysteria known as the Salem Witch Trials started.
The Buckeye State – In 1803, Ohio became a state, but it took until 1953 for it to be official.
February 29, 1916: Frances Rose Shore is born. People born on Leap Day are sometimes referred to as a leapling or a leap year baby. Each non-leap year, they may celebrate their birthday on either February 28 or March 1. Some people only celebrate their birthday every fourth year when the actual date reappears. Most of the time, this doesn’t really matter. However, government entities have taken the time to officially sanction when someone born on February 29 can legally claim a certain age (this is usually associated with some landmark issue such as one is legally an adult or legally able to participate in certain behaviors). Some countries have stipulated February 28 while other have mandated March 1 as the date to celebrate. Two women, one in the US and one in Norway, gave birth on Leap Day three different times.
Frances was born to Russian immigrants in Winchester, Tennessee. When she was two, she was struck with polio which was not preventable at the time and had no real cure other than rest. Her parents worked diligently and Frances recovered. The disease however left her with deformed feet and a limp. She loved to sing and even as a child had a beautiful voice. When she was 14, she sang at a Nashville nightclub and to her horror saw her parents sitting ringside. They did not stop her, but did put her singing career on hold. Two years later, Frances’s mother suddenly died of heart attack. Frances finished her education at Vanderbilt University where she graduated in 1938 with a degree in sociology.
Frances sang at the Grand Ole Opry and then decided to pursue her singing career in New York City. She auditioned many times and one of her songs was a popular song called “Dinah”. When disk jockey Martin Block couldn’t remember the singer’s name, he simply called her the “Dinah girl” and the name stuck. Dinah Shore got hired as a vocalist at radio station WNEW where she sang with Frank Sinatra and others. She signed a recording contract with RCA Victor Records in 1940. For twenty years, she had a number of hit songs on the charts. Her last hit in 1960 was “I Ain’t Down Yet”.
But Dinah didn’t just sing, she also made appearances on television, the first taking place in 1937. She even had her own eponymous show on NBC in 1951. From 1970 through 1980, Dinah had two different daytime shows, as well. She was a supporter of women’s professional golf and played the game herself. She helped found the Colgate Dinah Shore golf tournament in 1972. She was married twice and had one daughter and adopted a son with husband George Montgomery. She had several high profile affairs, more assumed affairs, and more rumors about her affairs. She died on February 24, 1994 from ovarian cancer. She was 77 years old.
The best money advice ever given me was from my father. When I was a little girl, he told me, ‘Don’t spend anything unless you have to.’
Trouble is part of your life – if you don’t share it, you don’t give the person who loves you a chance to love you enough.
Bing Crosby sings like all people think they sing in the shower.
I never wanted to set the world on fire. So I never had to burn any bridges behind me. – all from Dinah Shore
Also on this day: Hammerin’ Hank – In 1972, Hank Aaron signed with the Atlanta Braves for a record salary.
Leap Day – In 1584, the first Leap Day took place.
Child Labor Law – In 1916, a new minimum age for workers was passed in South Carolina.
Run For Office – In 1932, Bill Murray was on the cover of TIME magazine.
February 28, 1947: Thousands die in the 228 Massacre. The Japanese had ruled Taiwan for fifty years, but that ended when World War II came to a close. In October 1945, the United States on behalf of the Allied Forces, gave temporary administrative control of Taiwan to the Kuomintang (KMT) Republic of China (ROC) under General Order No. 1. During Japanese control of the island, many Taiwanese had prospered. Japan had used the island as a supply base and improved economic conditions for the locals. The Japanese were seen as helpful and many Taiwanese adopted Japanese names and practiced Shinto. Many were also bilingual.
When the Chinese were given temporary control, many Taiwanese were resentful. The ROC was to provide stability until a permanent solution could be found. Chen Yi was the Governor-General of Taiwan and arrived on October 24, 1945. The next day, Ando Rikichi, the last Japanese governor, signed a formal surrender document which made Taiwan part of China. The KMT troops were initially welcomed but the heavy-handed administration and apparent corruption in the government and the military brought great dissatisfaction. Because of mismanagement, the black market flourished, there was runaway inflation, and food shortages.
On the evening of February 27, 1947, a Tobacco Monopoly Bureau enforcement team went to a district in Taipei and confiscated illegal cigarettes from a 40-year-old widow. She resisted and slapped a man holding a gun who struck her in the head with his pistol. The Taiwanese came to the widow’s defense and as the altercation escalated, shots were fired. A crowd began to protest this treatment and the following morning, violence erupted into a full riot. The fighting back and forth calmed and flared over the next several weeks. Chen Yi and his troops eventually got control of the island once again, but thousands (conflicting numbers are given) had been killed in the fighting or executed.
For many years it was taboo to talk about this event at all. Chen Yi was himself executed by the government and families were compensated for their losses. However, this did not appease those who had been victimized by the Chinese troops. In 2004, on the 57th anniversary of 228, the 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally was held. It was a demonstration of solidarity. A human chain was formed with about two million people (1.9 to 2.3 million depending on the source) forming a 500 km or 310 mile human chain. Starting at the harbor at Keelung, Taiwan’s northernmost city, the chain wended its way to Eluanbi, Pingtung County at the southern tip of the island. The purpose was dual in nature. The Taiwanese wished for peace, but they were also protesting the deployment of missiles by the People’s Republic of China aimed at Taiwan, their island neighbor.
Free nations of the world cannot allow Taiwan, a beacon of democracy, to be subdued by an authoritarian China. – Nick Lampson
The public weal requires that men should betray, and lie, and massacre. – Michel de Montaigne
It is hard, I submit, to loathe bloodshed, including war, more than I do, but it is still harder to exceed my loathing of the very nature of totalitarian states in which massacre is only an administrative detail. – Vladimir Nabokov
Mankind must put an end to war before war puts an end to mankind. – John F. Kennedy
Also on this day: Dord – In 1939, the unknown word DORD was found in Webster’s Dictionary.
B&O Railroad – In 1827, a law was passed to form the B&O Railroad.
Goodbye, Farewell, and Amen – In 1983, the final episode of M*A*S*H was televised.
Betrayal – In 1844, an explosion aboard the USS Princeton shocked the nation.