July 29, 1899: The First Hague Convention is signed. The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 were the first multilateral treaties put in place to address conduct during warfare and both were based on the Lieber Code – a set of instructions for the Armies of the United States put in place by President Lincoln on April 24, 1863. This early law was the first to set out in codified form, regulations for behavior during times of martial law. It protected civilians and their property and listed punishments for transgressions. Also protected were prisoners of war, hostages, and spies and regulations were set down in regard to pillaging, truces, and prisoner exchanges. The 1874 Brussels Declaration listed 56 articles based on the Lieber Code, but it was never adopted.
The peace conference was proposed on August 24, 1898 by Russian Tsar Nicholas II. He and his foreign minister, Muravyov, were instrumental in bringing the conference to fruition. It opened on May 18, 1899, the Tsar’s birthday. Borrowing heavily from the Lieber Code, regulations about disarmament, the laws of war, and war crimes were addressed. The need for a binding international court for compulsory arbitration to settle international disputes was primary. It was an unachieved goal for both Hague Conferences. What was accomplished was the creation of a voluntary form for arbitration – the Permanent Court of Arbitration. The US, Britain, Russia, France, China, and Persia all favored a binding international court, but Germany led a small group of countries which vetoed this.
The Permanent Court of Arbitration still exists and has 115 state parties involved. The international organization is based in The Hague in the Netherlands. Many nations joined at the first convention with many more participating or reiterating their participation in the second. It is not a court in the conventional understanding of the term. It is, rather, an administrative organization which provides permanent and readily available means to serve as the registry for international arbitration and other related procedures, including enquiry and conciliation. They can assist with temporary arbitral tribunals or commissions. They are housed in the Peace Palace which was built specifically for the Court in 1913 with an endowment provided by Andrew Carnegie.
Also addressed at the 1899 conference was the laws and customs of war on land, adaptations to maritime warfare from the Geneva Convention of 1864, prohibition of discharging projectiles or explosives from balloons or other new analogous methods (Britain and the US did not sign this measure), prohibition against poisonous gases (the US did not sign), and prohibition against bullets which expand inside the human body (the US did not sign). The second council held in 1907 did little to advance peace. In the second conference called by President Theodore Roosevelt (but postponed until the war between Russia and Japan ended), thirteen more treaties were signed. Many of the rules laid down by the conventions were violated in World War I. By the end of World War II, at the Nuremberg Trials, most of the civilized world had recognized the laws and customs of war.
Peace is a journey of a thousand miles and it must be taken one step at a time. – Lyndon B. Johnson
If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner. – Nelson Mandela
The most valuable possession you can own is an open heart. The most powerful weapon you can be is an instrument of peace. – Carlos Santana
If you want peace, you don’t talk to your friends. You talk to your enemies. – Desmond Tutu
Also on this day: Arc de Triomphe – In 1836, the Arc de Triomphe is inaugurated.
Irish Unrest – In 1848, the English put down a revolt by the Irish at Tipperary.
I Spy – In 1864, Isabella Boyd was captured.
USS Forrestal – In 1967, a fire broke out on the aircraft carrier.
July 28, 1855: The USS Constellation is commissioned. She was the last sail-only warship designed and built by the US Navy. She was a sloop-of-war which means a single gun deck. According to the Naval Registry, the original USS Constellation – a frigate – was disassembled in 1853 at the Gosport Navy yard in Norfolk, Virginia and the sloop-of-war was then built at the same yard. Despite being a single gun deck, she was both larger and more powerfully armed that the original, her namesake. The sllop was laid down on June 25, 1853 and launched on August 26, 1854. She was commissioned on this day with Captain Charles H. Bell at the helm.
Constellation, now a museum ship, is 181 feet long at the waterline and 199 feet overall. She is 41 feet wide at the waterline and 43 feet at her most extreme. She has a 1,400 long ton displacement and her draft is 21 feet. When fully staffed, she carried 20 officers, 220 sailors, and 45 marines. She was armed with 25 guns, the majority of them 8-inch chambered shell guns. From 1855-58 she was part of the US Mediterranean Squadron and mostly performed diplomatic duties. In 1859, 1860, and 1861 she stopped three ships (one each year) which appeared to be part of the slave trade. Two of the ships were fitted out for transport of human cargo. One ship had 705 enslaved people aboard. They were set free in Monrovia, Liberia.
During the US Civil War, the Constellation remained in the Mediterranean Sea acting as a deterrent to Confederate cruisers and “commerce raiders”. After the war, she continued to sail near Europe and was part of the effort to bring food to Ireland during the famine. She also participated in bringing exhibits to the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1878. The Constellation also served as a floating barracks. During World War I, she was used as a training ship and over 60,000 recruits learned the ropes aboard her. She was decomissioned in 1933 but recommissioned in 1940 as a national symbol. She spent much of World War II as a relief flagship.
She was decommissioned again on February 4, 1955 and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on August 15 of that year, 100 years after her first commissioning. She was taken to Baltimore, Maryland and was designated a National Historic Landmark on May 23, 1963. She is the last intact naval vessel from the Civil War. In 1994 she was condemned as unsafe and taken in for a $9 million restoration project which was completed in 1999. Tours are regularly available and there is a cannon firing demonstration daily. The USS Constellation is now part of the Historic Ships of Baltimore.
If one does not know to which port one is sailing, no wind is favorable. – Lucius Annaeus Seneca
It is not the ship so much as the skillful sailing that assures the prosperous voyage. – George William Curtis
The effect of sailing is produced by a judicious arrangement of the sails to the direction of the wind. – William Falconer
You can’t believe how bleeding scary the sea is! There’s, like, whales and storms and shit! They don’t bloody tell you that! – Libba Bray
Also on this day: Dusting for Prints – In 1858, fingerprints are first used – sorta.
Motormouth – In 1958, Lord Jellico spoke for the first time in 19 years.
Plane Flies into Building in New York - In 1945, the Empire State Building was hit by a plane.
B-17 Flying Fortress - In 1935, a test flight for the WWII bomber was made.
July 27, 1694: The Bank of England receives a Royal Charter. In 1690, France steamrolled over England with the naval battles proving to be England’s downfall. She desperately needed to rebuild her navy. King William III’s government was unable to borrow funds but needed £1.2 million (at 8% interest). To get funds, subscriptions were incorporated by the name of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England (its official name). The bank was given exclusive rights to the government’s balances and was the only limited-liability corporation permitted to issue bank notes. Lenders gave the government cash (bullion) and were issued notes against the government bonds, which could be lent again. The monies were raised in twelve days and half was used to rebuild the navy.
With all the construction, supplying businesses sprang up – from nail making to agriculture needed to feed the new sailors. The nave quadrupled in size and an industrial boom fueled the economy. All this led to increased power at home and eventually to a global naval presence. The bank was the brainchild of William Paterso who put forth the idea three years earlier. Nothing was done until Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax resurrected the idea. The Royal Charter was granted on this day with the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694. The first governor of the bank was Sir John Houblon. The charter was renewed in 1742, 1764, and 1781.
The bank was originally located in Walbrook, in the City of London but moved to Threadneedle Street in 1734. During the 1700s, the idea of a National Debt came into play and this was also managed by the Bank. The gold standard was upheld until February 27, 1797 when war debts climbed and the nation’s gold reserves were so meager that the bank was not permitted to pay out gold. That lasted until 1821. Another crisis took place in 1780 when rioters in London attempted to storm the building. Every night – until 1973 – a detachment of soldiers patrolled the perimeters to protect the nation’s supply of gold.
Today the Bank of England is an independent public organization owned entirely by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government. They are one of eight banks authorized to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom. They have a monopoly on issuing banknotes in England and Wales and regulate the commercial banks of Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Bank’s Monetary Policy Committee does what their name implies but works with both the Treasury and Parliament. Mark Carney is the current governor and has been since July 1, 2013. He is Canadian and will serve an initial five year term rather than the normal eight years. He is seeking UK citizenship. He is the first non-British person to hold the post. The bank has reserves of £403,003,000,000. The British pound sterling is used throughout the UK and in nine British territories.
At the heart of banking is a suicidal strategy. Banks take money from the public or each other on call, skim it for their own reward and then lock the rest up in volatile, insecure and illiquid loans that at times they cannot redeem without public aid. – James Buchan
I have always been afraid of banks. – Andrew Jackson
The issue which has swept down the centuries and which will have to be fought sooner or later is the people versus the banks. – Lord Acton
The process by which banks create money is so simple that the mind is repelled. – John Kenneth Galbraith
Also on this day: What’s up Doc? – In 1940, Bugs Bunny made it to the silver screen.
Reign of Terror – In 1794, Maximilien Robespierre was arrested.
Smoke Gets in Your Eyes – In 1586, Sir Walter Raleigh brings tobacco to England.
Olympic Bomb – In 1996, a bomb goes off at the Atlanta Summer Olympics.
July 26, 2005: It rains in Mumbai. Rain began to fall around 2 PM. The trains came to a halt around 2:30 because the tracks were waterlogged. Since the trains weren’t running, more traffic took to the roads. The roads became treacherous with low-lying areas dangerous to drive through and in some cases, completely impassable. With cars and trains having difficulty, buses were filling. By 4 PM, a BEST bus left Churchgate for Mahim, 8.8 miles away. It took four hours to make the trip. By 5 PM cell phone networks were down and only some landlines were still functional. With the disruption in communications, radio and TV stations were unable to get weather updates, increasing the level of chaos.
Power Lake started to overflow at 4 PM and during the course of the storm discharged 5.95 million cubic meters of water (over 1.5 billion gallons) into the Mithi River. When looking at graphs of water movement after the storm, it was noted that two flood waves took place. The first coincided with the high tide. The second wave would normally have been absorbed because it was during a time of low tide. However, the first flood wave did not have time to recede and so the second wave met with still remaining water from the first. The drainage systems were clogged and unable to draw off standing water. Power was cut off during the evening since stations were submerged.
The rains continued to fall and 994 mm (39.1 inches) lashed Mumbai over a 24 hour period. This is the eighth highest 24 hour rainfall. Rain continued intermittently the next day as well. Between 8 AM and 8 PM, 644 mm (25.4 inches) fell. For the next week, torrential storms blew over the city. Other places in India were also struck by these storms. Historically, the greatest 24 hour rainfall in India took place in 2004 when 1,168 mm (46.0 inches) fell in Aminidivi on May 6. The previous record for Mumbai was 575 mm (22.6 inches) which fell during one day in 1976.
At least 5,000 people died as a result of these floods along with 24,000 animals. All commercial, trading, and industrial activity was halted for several days. Schools were shut down and post-storm the days were classified as holidays. The financial cost of the floods were estimated at $100 million. Neither the Bombay Stock Exchange nor the National Stock Exchange of India could fully function. All domestic and international airports were closed for over 30 hours which either cancelled or delayed over 700 flights. Much of the public transportation system suffered losses and damages. Over 26,000 vehicles had been stranded on the roadways. Emergency relief was organized and implemented as quickly as possible with over 25,000 people helped at fifteen locations.
The best thing one can do when it’s raining is to let it rain. – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Rain is grace; rain is the sky descending to the earth; without rain, there would be no life. – John Updike
You pray for rain, you gotta deal with the mud too. That’s a part of it. – Denzel Washington
The rain begins with a single drop. – Manal al-Sharif
Also on this day: The Polite Bandit – In 1875, a strange, but polite, man commits his first robbery
First Railway – In 1803, Surrey Iron Railway opened.
As the Worm Turns – In 1989, Robert Morris was indicted.
Feebs - In 1908, the FBI was formed.
July 25, 1917: Sir Robert Borden introduces a new temporary tax in Canada. Unlike their neighbor to the south and the Mother Country, Canada was able to avoid instituting an income tax until World War I. Prior to this, one of the key reasons for immigrating to the country was the lack of an income tax. Funding of the government came from tariffs and customs as well as management of natural resources. At the beginning of the twentieth century, one debate between the Conservatives and Liberals centered on whether or not to tax imports from the US. The Conservatives defeated the Liberals in 1911 as they supported free trade. The Conservatives also opposed an income tax in the hopes of attracting more US and British citizens to their lands.
Wartime expenses increased and the Tories had to reconsider their stance. Borden imposed what was to be a temporary income tax to help cover the cost of the war. With debts piling up in spite of having the tax imposed, it was impossible to simply stop after the war was over. A new Liberal government with Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King was brought in. The debate over dismantling it was abandoned and the income tax has been part of Canadian life ever since. The constitutional authority comes from section 91 paragraph 3 of the Constitution Act, 1867.
Canada levies personal income tax on her citizens and certain types of Canadian-source income earned by nonresidents. The amount one must pay is based on the total of taxable income (income earned less allowed expenses). Taxes may be sent to the government via deductions at the source, installment payments, payments paid when filing, or arrears payments. The most often used deductions are for contributions to Registered Retirement Savings Plans, union or professional dues, child care expenses, and business investment losses. Other deductions are less used and certain amounts can be excluded from taxation altogether. Charitable contributions create a tax credit which is based on the amount donated.
Robert Borders was the 8th Prime Minister of Canada and served in that role from October 10, 1911 until July 20, 1920. George V was King at the time with Earl Grey as Governor General. Borders was born in Nova Scotia in 1854 and was originally affiliated with the Liberal party (1867-1891). He switched at that time to the Conservative party and remained so affiliated with them except for a stint as a Unionist from 1917 to 1922. After retiring from political life, he went on to become Chancellor of Queen’s University and at the time of his death in 1937 he was president of Barclay’s Bank of Canada and of the Crown Life Insurance Company. Just as an interesting fact, he is a distant relative to Lizzie Borden, accused murderer.
The hardest thing to understand in the world is the income tax. – Albert Einstein
There is no such thing as a good tax. – Winston Churchill
When there is an income tax, the just man will pay more and the unjust less on the same amount of income. – Plato
Be wary of strong drink. It can make you shoot at tax collectors… and miss. – Robert A. Heinlein
Also on this day: Oh Joy! Louise – In 1978, Louise Joy Brown is born.
TP – in 1871, a patent was granted for perforated toilet paper.
Free Press – In 1925, TASS is established.
SS Andrea Doria – In 1956, the ship was struck out at sea.
July 24, 1847: Brigham Young arrives in Salt Lake Valley. Young was born in Whitingham, Vermont and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith. He converted to the Methodist church in 1823 and married in 1824. He converted to Mormonism shorting after reading the Book of Mormon in 1830 and officially joined the new church in 1832. He traveled as a missionary to Upper Canada and after his wife died (1832) he was back in Kirtland, Ohio and established a community there. He was ordained as one of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835 and took on a leadership role in which they hoped to export Mormonism to the UK. He also helped organize the exodus from Missouri in 1838.
In 1844 Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob while in jail on charges of treason. A succession crisis followed and Young and Sidney Rigdon argued over who should take leadership. Young’s argument prevailed and he was ordained President of the Church in December 1847. Rigdon left the church and started his own sect. Because of ongoing conflict within the Mormon church, Young decided to take the faithful followers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska and then on to Salt Lake Valley arriving on this day and establishing Salt Lake City. The day is known as Pioneer Day. Just 29 days after arriving, on August 22, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir was organized.
Pioneer Day is celebrated in Utah and also in some regions of the surrounding states with a strong Mormon presence. The day is devoted to the memory of the forced flight from Nauvoo, Illinois as well as other eastern US places and the finding of a new home out west. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints members walk portions of the Mormon Trail – the 1,300 mile route covered by those fleeing persecution. Today, the trail is part of the United States National Trails System. While Pioneer Day has strong ties to the Mormons of the region, it is celebrated by everyone regardless of faith or nationality. Many government offices and businesses are closed for the day.
Pioneer Day was first celebrated in 1857 but was interrupted by Johnson’s Army coming near at the start of the Utah War. While Utah Territory was occupied by federal troops, the day was not celebrated but when Lincoln initiated a hands-off policy in 1862, it was once again observed. In 1880, fifty years after the Church was founded, the Golden Jubilee was celebrated with tens of thousands of people participating. Anti-polygamy laws were placed and there were subdued celebrations with the 1886 event being more of a mourning for the people jailed for polygamy. By 1897 the laws were repealed, the celebrations returned, and it was a happy day once again.
True independence and freedom can only exist in doing what’s right.
Don’t try to tear down other people’s religion about their ears. Build up your own perfect structure of truth, and invite your listeners to enter in and enjoy it’s glories.
If I had a choice of educating my daughters or my sons because of opportunity constraints, I would choose to educate my daughters.
It is wise for us to forget our troubles, there are always new ones to replace them. – all from Brigham Young
Also on this day: The Manly Peak – In 1911, Machu Picchu was found – again.
Tennessee – In 1866, the first seceded state is admitted back to the Union.
Oh, Henry – In 1901, William Porter was released from prison.
Eastland - In 1915, the SS Eastland capsized.
July 23, 1943: The Rayleigh bath chair murder takes place. Archibald Brown, his wife Doris, and their two sons (Eric and Collin) lived in Rayleigh, Essex, England. Archibald was 47 at the time. Twenty-three years earlier he had been in a motorcycle accident in which he lost the use of his legs. He used a bath or Bath chair which is a rather luxurious type of wheelchair. It was more like a rolling chaise or light carriage which usually had a folding hood to protect the user from the elements when outdoors. When three-wheeled (one in front and two in back) it was pushed by hand. Sometimes, when it had four wheels, it could be pulled by horse, donkey, or pony. The name came either because it was shaped like an old-fashioned bathtub or because the designer hailed from Bath.
At 1:45 PM on this day, Doris Mitchell, one of Archibald’s three nurses, went to the air-raid shelter to get the bath chair only to find the door locked. She went to find Mrs. Brown and together they went back to the shelter where they met Eric, then 19, coming out. Both of the women brought the bath chair back to the house and helped Archibald get in. He was dressed in pajamas and a robe and had a plaid blanket over his legs. Doris left the house with Archibald. They had gone about a mile when Archibald shifted his weight to find a cigarette in his pocket. Doris paused and lit the cigarette and then went back behind the chair to resume pushing.
Just a few steps later, there was a violent explosion. Doris suffered leg injuries and as she looked, the chair and its occupant were simply gone. Police found portions of the Archibald’s body on the sides of the road and in nearby trees and gardens. Since it was wartime, the possibility of enemy action was checked into and discarded. The cause of the explosion was found to be a British Hawkins grenade. It is an anti-tank mine which is detonated when an acid-filled glass ampoule is broken. The device had been placed under the cushion of the chair. During the investigation, it was found that although Archibald had been unable to walk, he had been a cruel and abusive husband and father.
His mistreatment of his wife was less volatile than what his son experienced. Eric had been beaten and humiliated for years and it was getting worse. There was also some notice taken by both mother and son that while their abuse was increasing, Archibald had taken a liking to his new nurse and seemed to delight in their walks outdoors together. Eric was charged with the murder. He had attended a lecture on the same mine/grenade as that used in the murder. He was also a veteran and had access to a weapons store in Spilsby. He confessed to the crime, blaming his actions on his father’s increasing abuse of both himself and his mother. He was found guilty and declared insane. He was finally released in 1975.
There are many things worth living for, a few things worth dying for, and nothing worth killing for. – Tom Robbins
If peace can only come through killing someone, then I don’t want it. – Hiro Mashima
The dumber people think you are, the most surprised they’re going to be when you kill them. – William Clayton
“You can die trying to get along with a disagreeable man,” she said, and I put a star beside it when I wrote it down and then taped it to the rear-view mirror for the rest of the drive. She hadn’t said “abusive,” I noticed; she had said that just disagreeable could kill you. – Debby Bull
Also on this day: “Wanna see something really scary?” – In 1983, Vic Morrow and two children are killed on the set of Twilight Zone, The Movie.
World War I – In 1914, Serbia ignored an ultimatum from Austria- Hungary.
Like Riding on Air – In 1888, John Dunlap patents a new tire.
Telstar - In 1962, the first live transatlantic TV program was broadcast.
July 22, 1793: Alexander Mackenzie becomes the first recorded person to make a transcontinental crossing of Canada. He was born in Scotland in 1764 and came to America in 1774 when his mother died. His father and an uncle were already there and had joined the King’s Royal Regiment of New York as lieutenants (since they had prior experience). By 1778, Alexander was sent to Montreal to escape the hardships of war and he was given an apprenticeship with Finlay, Gregory & Co. – one the most influential fur trading companies in the city. The company merged with the North West Company in 1787.
On their behalf, Mackenzie traveled to Lake Athabasca in 1788. He learned that the First Nations people knew much about the local rivers and based on information gleaned from this source, he set out on July 10, 1789 to find the source of the Dehcho River (now Mackenzie River) hoping to find the mysterious Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean. Instead of finding the Pacific, he wound up on what he called Disappointment River at the Arctic Ocean instead. The river did not lead to Cook Inlet in Alaska as expected and hoped for. He left Canada in 1791 to return to Great Britain to learn about advances in measurement of longitude and returned the next year determined to find a way to reach the Pacific.
On this trip, he was accompanied by two native guides, his cousin Alexander, six Canadian voyageurs, and a dog. They left from Fort Chipewyan on October 10, 1792 and sailed up the Pine River to the Peace River. On November 1, they stopped, built a shelter which became known as Fort Fork, and wintered there. On May 9, 1793, they set out once again and followed the Peace River. They crossed the Great Divide and found the headwaters of the Fraser River. They were warned that the upriver canyon was unnavigable and filled with belligerent natives. He was directed to take a route following the West Road River, cross the Coast Mountains, and then descend via the Bella Coola River. He did so and arrived at Bella Coola, British Columbia. This is situated on North Bentinck Arm, an inlet of the Pacific.
He missed meeting George Vancouver at Bella Coola by just 48 days. Mackenzie was hoping to continue westward but was stopped by the Heiltsuck people in war canoes who hemmed the entourage in. While holed up, he inscribed his feat on a rock at the water’s edge of Dean Channel. The words were later inscribed permanently by surveyors and is now a National Historic Site. In 1801 he published journals of his exploratory journeys and he was knighted for his efforts. He severed in the Legislature and eventually (1812) returned to Scotland. He married 14-year-old Geddes, an heiress. He died in London in 1820 at the age of 56.
I always wanted to be an explorer, but – it seemed I was doomed to be nothing more than a very silly person. – Michael Palin
It’s important for the explorer to be willing to be led astray. – Roger von Oech
You will not accept credit that is due to another, or harbor jealousy of an explorer who is more fortunate. – Abbott L. Lowell
The greatest explorer on this earth never takes voyages as long as those of the man who descends to the depth of his heart. – Julien Green
Also on this day: Public Enemy #1 – In 1934, John Dillinger met his end – maybe.
Cleaveland – In 1796, Cleveland, Ohio was named for the leader of the surveying party.
Falkirk - In 1298, the Battle of Falkirk took place.
And They’re Off - In 1894, the first motorized vehicle race was held.
July 21, 1873: The Rock Island train is derailed in Adair, Iowa. Jesse James and his cohorts commit what is considered to be the first successful train robbery in the American Wild West. Their robbery netted them about $3,000 (~ $59,000 in today’s dollars). The robbers were dressed in Ku Klux Klan masks years after the Force Acts suppressed their presence in the Old South. The idea was that former rebels were attacking the train as a symbol of threatening the establishment. Their later train robberies were less violent as they usually just took the money from the express safe in the baggage car and left the passengers keep their belongings.
The James Gang was made up of Jesse and his brother Frank along with the Younger brothers, Cole, Jim, John, and Bob. At various times all these and a few more (Clell Miller, Arthur McCoy, Charlie Pitts, John Jarrette, Bill Chadwell, and Matthew Nelson) were also included. Their origins stem from a group of Confederate bushwhackers who fought in the state of Missouri, a bitter battlefield during the US Civil War. Their postwar crimes began in 1866 but they did not truly become the James-Younger Gang until two years later. The gang dissolved after the capture of the Younger brothers during a failed bank robbery in Minnesota in 1876. Three years later, James organized a new group and was back in the business.
Jesse James was born in Missouri in 1847. His father was a commercial hemp farmer and a Baptist minister in Kentucky and moved to Missouri after he married. He was a successful and prosperous man and owned six slaves and more than 100 acres of farmland. He went to California to minister to those searching for gold and died there when Jesse was three. His mother married two more times. The area the James family lived in was dubbed “Little Dixie” during the War and had been a hotbed of discontent on the slave issue since 1854. Jesse and his older brother, Frank, were guerrilla fighters for the South during the War and gained much of their experience during this time.
After the war, Missouri was in shambles and the bushwackers were held together by their wartime leader. The men began to harass Republican authorities and they were probably the group that committed the first daylight armed bank robbery in the US during peacetime. As their robberies continued legends grew up around them and stories may have been embellished to include criminal acts in which the James brothers did not participate. Their crime spree continued with the crimes becoming more violent. Many of the gang had been killed or jailed and Jesse was relying solely on Charley and Robert Ford. This was a mistake. As they were getting ready to leave on another robbery attempt, Bob Ford shot Jesse point blank in the back of the head. He died at the age of 34.
I had hope, however; I had been wounded seven times during the war, and once before in this same lung; and I did not believe I was going to die.
I knew, however, that the next morning after the fight I would have to get away, and I did just in time, for a full company came early to look for me and were furious because I had escaped them.
No, I think it taught me to be independent and never expect a handout and never wait for anybody to hand you anything in any aspect of my life.
Surrender had played out for good with me. – all from Jesse James
Also on this day: Brrrrrrr – In 1983, the coldest recorded temperature is captured at Vostok Station.
Destruction – In 356 BC, the Temple of Artemis was destroyed.
Wild Bill Hickok – In 1865, the first shoot out in the wild west took place.
Constitutional - In 1997, the USS Constitution goes back out to sea.
July 20, 356 BC: Alexander III of Macedon is born. He was born on the sixth month of the ancient Greek calendar, Hekatombaion, which corresponds to this date although, in all fairness, this may be a miscalculation. He was the son of Philip II and his fourth wife, Olympias (daughter of the king of Epirus). Philip had seven or eight wives, but Olympias was his favorite one, possibly due to having given birth to Alexander. The infant’s care was given over to a nurse and he eventually came under the tutelage of Leonidas and Lysimachus. He was raised as most nobles of the time with instruction in reading, riding, fighting, hunting, and playing the lyre.
At age 13, he needed a private tutor and Aristotle was chosen for the job. The lessons were held at the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza and other students there were Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander who would become Alexander’s lifelong friends and generals in his conquests. These teens were taught about medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art under Aristotle. Alexander developed a passion for Homer and his favorite tale was the Iliad. His annotated copy went with him on his later campaigns. At age 16, his time with Aristotle ended. His father left to go to war against Byzantium and left Alexander as regent and heir apparent in Macedon.
While the father was gone, the Thracian Maedi revolted and Alexander responded quickly and decisively, driving them from their lands and colonizing it with Greeks. Father and son campaigned together after Philip returned and were a force to be reckoned with. When Philip died in 336 BC, Alexander took over the kingdom but desired to spread his rule farther afield. His successful campaigns did give him more lands to rule and he became the Pharaoh of Egypt in 332 BC, the King of Persia in 330 BC, and the King of Asia in 331 BC. Darius III had been ruler of Egypt and Persia prior to Alexander’s take over. There was no prior king of Asia.
While Alexander was out on conquests, the homeland enjoyed peace and prosperity. He sent back much of the plunder enriching the economy back home. However, because of his ever increasing need for troops, much of the male population in Macedon was away and it weakened the region which eventually led to their subjugation by Rome. As his Empire became larger, there was dissention and eventually mismanagement crept in. In June 323 BC, Alexander the Great died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II at the age of 32. There are a few versions of the cause of death and a couple involve drunken debauchery and others include assassination. Also possible are natural causes such as malaria or typhoid fever. After his death, the cohesiveness deteriorated and his Empire was soon divided.
I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion.
I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well.
Heaven cannot brook two suns, nor earth two masters.
I had rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent, than in the extent of my power and dominion. – all from Alexander the Great
Also on this day: One Small Step – In 1969, Neil Armstrong steps out of the Eagle and walks on the moon.
Dethroned – In 1984, Vanessa Williams was asked to step down as Miss America.
Women’s Army Corps – In 1942, the Women’s Army Corps begins training.
Special - In 1968, the first Special Olympics were held.