Little Bits of History

Northern Aggression?

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 9, 2011

January 9, 1861: A US merchant marine vessel, Star of the West, is fired upon by Southerners. On December 31, 1861 Charleston, South Carolina was notified by telegram that a man of war with troops aboard was coming to Fort Sumter, a federal fort in the Charleston Harbor. Instead of sending the Brooklyn, a heavily armed and reinforced sloop, the Star of the West was substituted to resupply the Fort.

Illustration of Star of the West approaching Fort Sumter from Frank Leslie's Weekly

As the ship approached, cadets from The Citadel stationed on Morris Island, fired on the Star. As the ship came about, Fort Moutrie also opened fire using cannons. The Star was hit three times and one-and-a-half miles from Fort Sumter, she withdrew. This left Major Robert Anderson’s troops without their much needed supplies. The Star made it back to New York City on January 12. At that point, the ship was refitted and as war officially broke out, she was ready to serve the federal cause.

Fort Sumter is located on a rock shoal in the harbor off Charleston, a bastion of States Rights and leader of the soon to become Confederacy. These revolutionaries, or traitors depending on one’s point of view, made it a mission of theirs to keep the Fort from being resupplied. When they learned of a supply ship being sent, they scuttled a ship in the harbor making approach to the garrison more difficult. The Brooklyn would have carried about 200 men, arms, munitions, and supplies to Fort Sumter.

General Winifred Scott was in charge of sending supplies from New York to Charleston. He consulted with President Buchanan before sending the heavily armed ship into dangerous waters. The men decided to play a trick in “secret” and sent the Star which had a shallower draft in place of the warship. It was also thought sending the merchant marine vessel would be less inflammatory. The Star also made routine trips from New York to New Orleans and it was hoped no one would notice her. The Brooklyn was to follow behind the Star in case of an incident. However, everyone, including the defenders of Charleston knew about the ruse and the Fort did not receive the needed supplies.

“We’ll fight them, sir, ’til hell freezes over, and then, sir, we will fight them on the ice.” – Confederate soldier at Gettysburg

“My plans are perfect, and when I start to carry them out, may God have mercy on Bobby Lee, for I shall have none.” – General Joe Hooker

“If the Confederacy falls, there should be written on its tombstone: Died of a Theory.” – Jefferson Davis

“The American people and the Government at Washington may refuse to recognize it for a time but the inexorable logic of events will force it upon them in the end; that the war now being waged in this land is a war for and against slavery.” – Frederick Douglass

Also on this day:
Advertising – In 1984, Clara Peller makes her television debut.
Seeing eye dogs – In 1929, The Seeing Eye was established to train guide dogs.

Sultana

Posted in History by patriciahysell on April 27, 2010

Depiction of the crowded Sultana exploding

April 27, 1865: The steamboat Sultana‘s boiler explodes while carrying Union soldiers home after the end of the Civil War. Many of the soldiers had been held in Andersonville, the worst POW camp of the war. About one-third of prisoners held at Andersonville died of exposure, malnutrition, or disease. Henry Wirz, the commander of the camp, is the only Confederate officer to be tried and found guilty of war crimes.

Sailing was delayed until the Mississippi River was past flood stage after the winter melt runoff swelled the mighty river. The ship’s trip started in New Orleans on April 21 with between 75 and 100 passengers and livestock on the way to St. Louis. The boiler was known to be in poor repair, but the trip was made regardless. The Sultana stopped in Vicksburg, Mississippi for some repairs to the faulty boilers and to take on more passengers. The repair to the boiler removed a section of bulging material and replaced it by welding on a new section of lesser thickness than the rest of the boiler, creating a weak point. A new boiler replacement would have delayed the trip by three days. Captain J.C. Mason did not want to lose the time making adequate repairs.

Most of the passengers on this ship were still in poor health from the POW camp. They were crammed onto the Sultana and headed up the river. The legal capacity of the boat was 376, but on this trip about 2,400 were on board. More than two thousand soldiers, eager to return home, were crammed into every available nook and cranny of the ship at Vicksburg. The US government had contracted with the Sultana to return newly released prisoners of war to their homes.

Just north of Memphis, Tennessee, at about 3:00 AM, the boiler exploded. The shockwave sent many of the men crowded on deck into the water. Hot coals rained down on top of them and many were trapped onboard the ship as it burnt. Some had the choice of staying on the ship or jumping into the overflowing freezing river. Many men died of either hypothermia or by drowning. About 500 men were pulled from the river, about 200 of them subsequently died. No exact death toll is possible, but it is assumed that about 1,700 to 1,800 died in the disaster.

“The United States lost more men from battle wounds and disease in the Civil War than in any other war of its history, including the Second World War. The battle front stretched from Pennsylvania to New Mexico, and included also the seven seas.” – Richard Weaver

“We have met the enemy and they are us!” – Walt Kelly

“You are sad because they abandon you and you have not fallen.” – Antonio

“All say, ‘How hard it is that we have to die’ – a strange complaint to come from the mouths of people who have had to live.” – Mark Twain

Also on this day, in 1667 John Milton got a publisher for Paradise Lost.

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