Little Bits of History

August 15

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2017

1843: Tivoli Gardens opens. Located in Copenhagen, Denmark, it is the second oldest operating amusement park in the world. The oldest is also in Denmark. Tivoli is the most visited park in Scandinavia (almost 5 million people per year) and the fourth most visited in Europe, behind Disneyland Paris, Europa-Park, and Efteling. It was originally called Tivoli & Vauxhall, alluding to the Jardin de Tivoli in Paris and Vauxhall Gardens in London. Georg Carstensen was granted a five-year charter from King Christian VIII with the task of creating the park. The King noted that when “people are amusing themselves, they do not think of politics” and therefore granted about 15 acres for the project.

The land was originally outside Copenhagen in the fortified glacis outside the West Gate. To get to Tivoli, patrons had to travel through Vesterport. The park, even from the very start, had a variety of amusements. Buildings were erected in an imaginary Orient style and housed a theater, band stands, restaurants, and cafes along with flower gardens. There were mechanical rides even in the early days and at opening, there was both a merry-go-round and a scenic railway. After dark, colored lamps were lit in the gardens making them a stunning attraction. On special days, a fireworks display could be seen overhead as well as reflected in Tivoli’s lake.

There have been many upgrades over the nearly two centuries of entertainment. The first in 1874 saw The Pantomime Theatre (also built in a Chinese style) taking over many smaller venues. Even now, Columbine and Harlequin perform and since it is pantomime, all audiences can enjoy the show. In the 19th and early 20th centuries there were human exhibitions included. In 1943, Nazi sympathizers burned many of the buildings, including the concert hall. Temporary buildings were used until replacements could be built within a few weeks’ time. In 1914, a wooden roller coaster was added to the park and remains in operation today. Rutschebanen has an operator controlling the speed so it remains safe to ride. It’s top speed in 31 mph.

Rutschebanen is joined by three other roller coasters with the last built in 2004. The Demon has a top speed of 48 mph. Aquila was added in 2013 and is a giant swing generating centrifugal power generating up to 4G. Fatamorgana, a Condor ride, was added in 2016. There are also many kiddie rides available to amuse the younger crowd. There are other attractions with a Tivoli Festival held yearly from May 14 to September 8 with more than 50 different events included. Also on site are a number of performing arts venues offering a range of productions. The park also offers a Halloween Fest in October and Christmas Holidays in December. The builder declared it would never be complete and new things are being added continually.

Tivoli will never, so to speak, be finished, – Georg Carstensen, in 1844

The way I see it, love is an amusement park, and food its souvenir. – Stephanie Klein

In an amusement park, you can go on a roller coaster that carries you up and down, or you can go on another kind of ride that whirls you around in a circle. Similarly, there are different sorts of entertaining experiences in the theater. – Wallace Shawn

I’m not here for your amusement. You’re here for mine. – John Lydon

 

 

Tagged with: ,

Defeat

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2015
Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon (ink and water on paper by Kikuchi Yosai)

Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon (ink and water on paper by Kikuchi Yosai)

August 15, 1281: The fleet of Kublai Khan is destroyed. The Mongol invasion of Japan was a series of attacks on the island nation from the mainland. Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty in 1271 and by the next year was receiving information from King Chungnyeol encouraging an attack on Japan along with the use of a well prepared fleet. The first invasion took place in 1274. Kublai Khan had about 15,000 Mongol and Chinese soldiers along with 8000 Korean soldiers. Also under his command were 300 large ships and 400-500 smaller ones. They first landed on Tsushima Island and the Japanese were greatly outnumbered. They fought and lost. The island was overtaken and the next to be invaded was Iki with the same results the Mongols kept island hopping. This lasted for several islands and about two weeks.

The Mongols’ next landing was met with a better prepared army and they were able to drive off the Mongol armies. Thousands of Mongols were gathered at Torikai-Gata but the Japanese were able to match their armies and with reinforcements were able to defeat them with Mongolian casualties numbering about 13,500. After their defeat, they withdrew to their ships. The Japanese, seeing their advantage, attacked until the forces left entirely to return to the mainland. On their way home, they ran into a typhoon and many of their ships sank, killing those aboard. Preparations to relaunch an attack were underway by 1275. Diplomatic relations deteriorated and armament buildups ensued. In the spring of 1281, the Mongols sent two separate forces of 900 ships and 40,000 troops.

They waited in Korea while they met difficulties in getting supplies for their attacks. Food and fighting men were not as easy to amass as had been hoped. They set off and landed at Tsushima again, this time they were repelled. There were a number of skirmishes over the course of the summer but the Japanese, although outnumbered, were able to defend their homelands. As the Mongol ships were once more heading toward Japan, a kamikaze or divine wind swept over the seas. A massive typhoon which lasted two straight days destroyed much of Kublai Khan’s navy.

Today, it also theorized that much of the damage was exacerbated by the type of boats used. As they tried to amass their huge sailing contingent, they used whatever boats were available. These were hastily acquired flat-bottomed river boats built in Goryeo. The better ships for open water and able to withstand the storms were too expensive and the time needed for construction was too great. So the traditional ships or boats were used and these were less able to withstand storms because they are more easily able to capsize. With these added losses to what had been suffered over the course of the summer, Kublai Khan had to be content with leaving the East alone and turn his conquests in a different direction.

A defeat borne with pride is also a victory. – Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach

The problems of victory are more agreeable than the problems of defeat, but they are no less difficult. – Winston Churchill

Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure, than to take rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much, because they live in the gray twilight that knows not victory nor defeat. – Theodore Roosevelt

We may encounter many defeats but we must not be defeated. – Maya Angelou

Also on this day: Yasgur’s Farm – In 1969, Woodstock began.
Requiem – In 1935, a plane crash killed Will Rogers and Wiley Post.
Military Precision – In 1995, Shannon Faulkner arrived at the Citadel.
Macbeth – In 1057, King Macbeth was killed.
Taliesin I – In 1914, Frank Lloyd Wright’s house was destroyed.

Tagged with: , ,

Taliesin I

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2014
Taliesan I i

Taliesin I

August 15, 1914: Taliesin I is destroyed. Frank Lloyd Wright, was an American architect who designed more than 1,000 structures, this house being one of them. He had been born in Wisconsin in 1867 and the property on which the house was built had belonged to his mother’s family. Wright attended a couple semesters at the University of Wisconsin – Madison but did not graduate. After the Chicago fire of 1871 there was much work to be done there and Wright found a place to first spread his wings. He married in 1889 and he designed their home in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park. Mamah Borthwick (Cheney) met Mrs. Wright and Mr. Chaney commissioned Wright to built the Edwin H Cheney house. Borthwick and Wright each decided to leave their spouses and traveled to Europe. Borthwick divorced in 1911 but Wright’s wife would not grant him a divorce until 1922.

The scandal caused a disruption in Wright’s professional life. He built Taliesin for himself and his mistress and they moved in together in 1911. Built in the Prairie School design he had devised just a few years earlier, the house had three sections: two broad portions on either end and a narrow connection ground level corridor. Wright also designed the furniture for the home. One of the broad sections was used as Wright’s studio and workroom with a small apartment there used by Wright’s head draftsman. Wright and Borthwick lived in the other broad section with her two children. Wright struggled getting commissions because of the scandalous affair and some even called for his arrest for living immorally.

Part of the household staff was 31-year-old African-American Julian Carlton who worked as a chef. He claimed to be from Barbados. Carlton was initially genial but grew more paranoid with time and began staying up late holding a butcher knife and looking out the window. He was in a couple confrontations with draftsman Emil Brodelle and was given notice that this date would be his last day to work at Taliesin. Wright was in Chicago, working. Borthwick, her children, and the studio personnel would be waiting for lunch on the other side of the house. Around noon, Carlton took a hatchet and attacked Borthwick, killing her instantly. Her son was hacked to bits and her daughter tried to escape but was chased and also killed. He doused the bodies in gasoline and started a fire, setting the house ablaze.

Then, lighting a second fire under the other side of the house, Carlton waited for the other six residents to try to escape. Herbert Fritz manage to flee, but broke his arm. Brodelle was killed outright. William Weston was attacked but survived. His son and two other workers survived their attacks but died of their wounds days later. Carlton hid where he thought he could survive the fire but had hydrochloric acid with him to commit suicide if the heat became too great. He did swallow the acid but survived. Neighbors helped put out the fire although the house was destroyed. Carlton was taken into custody. The acid caused him to have difficulty swallowing and he died in jail 47 days later from starvation.

Early in life I had to choose between honest arrogance and hypocritical humility. I chose the former and have seen no reason to change.

Study nature, love nature, stay close to nature. It will never fail you.

The truth is more important than the facts.

Give me the luxuries of life and I will willingly do without the necessities. – all from Frank Lloyd Wright

Also on this day: Yasgur’s Farm – In 1969, Woodstock begins.
Requiem – In 1935, a plane crash killed Will Rogers and Wiley Post.
Military Precision – In 1995, Shannon Faulkner arrives at the Citadel.
Macbeth – In 1057, King Macbeth was killed.

Requiem

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2013
Will Rogers

Will Rogers

August 15, 1935: Beloved Humorist and World Famous Pilot are killed in a plane crash. Will Rogers was not only funny but a social commentator and actor. Wiley Post was the first to fly solo around the world in 1933. Post began his career as a parachutist for Burrell Tibbs and His Topnotch Fliers. In 1926, just short of his 28th birthday, he lost his left eye in an oil field accident. He used his settlement to purchase his first plane. He first met Will Rogers while flying him to a rodeo and the two became friends.

Post, using a wealthy oilman’s plane, won the National Air Race Derby in 1930 making the LA to Chicago flight in 9 hours, 9 minutes, and 4 seconds. After Graf Zeppelin’s trip around the world (see August 8), Post had a new goal. Post and his navigator, Harold Gatty, left Roosevelt Field on Long Island, New York on June 23, 1931 and returned 8 days, 15 hours, 51 minutes later having covered 15,474 miles. Using a self-installed autopilot and a radio compass, Post made the same trip alone in 1933 in 7 days and 19 hours – 21 hours less than the previous record – and he did it alone. He also was interested in high-altitude flight and helped to develop a functional pressure suit.

William Penn Adair Rogers was born in Oologah, Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. He was so adept with a lariat, he was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records for throwing three at once. He worked in vaudeville and migrated to the movies; he was in 71 movies – 50 silent films and 21 talkies. He also wrote more than 4,000 syndicated newspaper columns. He was a poor student, being more interested in cowboys, horses, and the lariat. It paid off. He traveled around the world three times thrilling audiences with rope tricks, his sparkling wit, and commentary on the state of the world.

In 1935, Post was interested in a mail-and-passenger air route from the west coast to Russia. Without enough cash to buy a plane, he cobbled together parts from two different Lockheed aircraft, an Orion and a wrecked experimental Explorer. He used the non-retractable landing gear to make it a float plane. Rogers visited Post in California and they agreed to fly together up to Alaska, Rogers looking for new topics for his columns. Because some parts did not arrive in time, others were used making the plane nose-heavy. During some bad weather, Post landed on a lagoon to ask directions. The engine failed during takeoff and the nose heavy plane disintegrated as it crashed into the water, killing both men instantly.

“Civilization has taught us to eat with a fork, but even now if nobody is around we use our fingers.”

“I belong to no organized party. I am a Democrat.”

“An ignorant person is one who doesn’t know what you have just found out.”

“Never miss a good chance to shut up.”

“Don’t let yesterday use up too much of today.” – all from Will Rogers

This article first appeared at examiner.com in 2009. Editor’s update: Will Rogers was slightly more than ¼ Cherokee, both parents providing the lineage. His mother died when he was just 11 and his father remarried two years later. Will was the youngest of eight children but he and three of his sisters were the only ones to survive to adulthood. His father served as a Cherokee judge and in the senate. He also served as a delegate to the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention. Rogers County is named after Clement Rogers and not his more famous son. Will began his showman career as a trick roper with “Texas Jack’s Wild West Circus” and after a short time left for Australia with Texas Jack’s blessing and recommendation letter to work in a circus there. He worked as both a roper and rider and eventually returned to the US and began his Vaudeville career.

Also on this day: Yasgur’s Farm – In 1969, Woodstock begins.
Military Precision – In 1995, Shannon Faulkner arrives at the Citadel.
Macbeth – In 1057, King Macbeth was killed.

Macbeth

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2012

King Macbeth of Scotland

August 15, 1057: King Macbeth is killed. Mac Bethad mac Findlaich was also nicknamed Ri Deircc or “the Red King” and was the King of the Scots. He was also known as King of Alba and earlier as King of Moray and King of Fortriu. Most of what we “know” about Macbeth (the Anglicanized version of his name) comes from the tragedy written by William Shakespeare somewhere between 1603 and 1606, probably. Shakespeare was a brilliant playwright but was not so good as a historian.

While we know some of Macbeth’s genealogy, the family tree remains partly in shadow. Systems of succession of rule worked for some time, but early in the 11th century there were succession crises throughout the areas today called Scotland and Ireland. In 1031, Cnut the Great came north and three kings submitted to him – Malcolm (King of the Scots), Macbeth, and Iehmarc. This record from history leaves room for dispute over the amount of power Macbeth actually held. Was he there as an equal to Malcolm or a subordinate? It is unknown how much status he had at the time. We do know he became King of the Scots in 1040 after a battle in which Duncan was slain by Macbeth.

He became universally accepted as King by 1045 after Duncan’s father was killed in a battle. As his acceptance grew, he decided to travel to Rome, making a pilgrimage in 1050. Records say that along the way, he gave “money to the poor as if it were seed.” Back in Scotland, by 1052 Macbeth received exiles from Norman England. This brought him indirectly into the issues in England between Godwin, Earl of Essex and Edward the Confessor.

These issues led to an invasion of Scotland which the Annals of Ulster say left 3,000 Scots and 1,500 English dead. Macbeth survived this invasion. However, he met the son of Duncan (whose mother had fled with her children after Macbeth’s victory years before) in battle. On the north side of the Mounth, son and victor met with the current victory going to the younger man. Duncan, after killing Macbeth and avenging his father, became King Malcolm III.

If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me.

Stars, hide your fires! / Let not light see my black and deep desires.

I go, and it is done; the bell invites me. / Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell / That summons thee to heaven, or to hell.

Lay on, Macduff, / And damn’d be him that first cries, Hold, enough! – all from Macbeth, as told by William Shakespeare

Also on this day:

Yasgur’s Farm – In 1969, Woodstock begins.
Requiem – In 1935, a plane crash killed Will Rogers and Wiley Post.
Military Precision – In 1995, Shannon Faulkner arrives at the Citadel.

Tagged with: ,

Military Precision

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2011

The Citadel in Charleston, SC

August 15, 1995: Shannon Faulkner arrives at The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina. She applied to the all-male military college and was accepted in January of 1993. She was then rejected when it was noted she did not fit the all-male criteria. She filed suit against the college and was taking classes, but not admitted as a Cadet in the Corps. Appeals followed and the courts stated Faulkner was to be granted full status at The Citadel.

She arrived on campus and was housed in the infirmary as there was no co-ed housing available. She quit within a week citing exhaustion, emotional and psychological abuse, and complaining of maltreatment by the student body. Shannon Faulkner is now a high school teacher, having completed her college education elsewhere.

The United States Supreme Court decided in 1996 that the Virginia Military Institute’s all-male policy was unconstitutional. At that point, The Citadel changed it’s policy and not only allowed women to enter the college, but actively sought them out. There were 118 women enrolled in May 2005, six percent of the undergrad population.

The Citadel was established in 1842 by the South Carolina Legislature. While it is a military college, it is not necessary that students join one of the armed services upon graduation, but more than one-third of the graduates have. The school currently has about 3,200 students. Of those, 2,000 are undergrads and in the Corps of Cadets and another 100 are civilian undergrads. All post-grad students are civilians and number 1,100. In 2007 The Citadel was ranked third out of 24 public colleges in the Southern region of the US. They also have the highest percentage of their female student population playing sports with more than half playing on seven varsity teams.

“You cannot be wimpy out there on the dream-seeking trail. Dare to break through barriers, to find your own path.” – Les Brown

“‘Where there is a will there is a way’ is an old, true saying. He who resolves upon doing a thing, by that very resolution often scales the barriers to it, and secures its achievement. To think we are able, is almost to be so. To determine upon attainment is frequently attainment itself.” – Samuel Smiles

“The largest barrier to success is removing the mattress from one’s back in the morning.” – unknown

“We need every human gift and cannot afford to neglect any gift because of artificial barriers of sex or race or class or national origin.” – Margaret Mead

Also on this day:
Yasgur’s Farm – In 1969, Woodstock begins.
Requiem – In 1935, a plane crash killed Will Rogers and Wiley Post.

Military Precision

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2010

The Citadel in Charleston, SC

August 15, 1995: Shannon Faulkner arrives at The Citadel in Charleston, South Carolina. She applied to the all-male military college and was accepted in January of 1993. She was then rejected when it was noted she did not fit the all-male criteria. She filed suit against the college and was taking classes, but not admitted as a Cadet in the Corps. Appeals followed and the courts stated Faulkner was to be granted full status at The Citadel.

She arrived on campus and was housed in the infirmary as there was no co-ed housing available. She quit within a week citing exhaustion, emotional and psychological abuse, and complaining of maltreatment by the student body. Shannon Faulkner is now a high school teacher, having completed her college education elsewhere.

The United States Supreme Court decided in 1996 that the Virginia Military Institute’s all-male policy was unconstitutional. At that point, The Citadel changed it’s policy and not only allowed women to enter the college, but actively sought them out. There were 118 women enrolled in May 2005, six percent of the undergrad population.

The Citadel was established in 1842 by the South Carolina Legislature. While it is a military college, it is not necessary that students join one of the armed services upon graduation, but more than one-third of the graduates have. The school currently has about 3,200 students. Of those, 2,000 are undergrads and in the Corps of Cadets and another 100 are civilian undergrads. All post-grad students are civilians and number 1,100. In 2007 The Citadel was ranked third out of 24 public colleges in the Southern region of the US. They also have the highest percentage of their female student population playing sports with more than half playing on seven varsity teams.

“You cannot be wimpy out there on the dream-seeking trail. Dare to break through barriers, to find your own path.” – Les Brown

“‘Where there is a will there is a way’ is an old, true saying. He who resolves upon doing a thing, by that very resolution often scales the barriers to it, and secures its achievement. To think we are able, is almost to be so. To determine upon attainment is frequently attainment itself.” – Samuel Smiles

“The largest barrier to success is removing the mattress from one’s back in the morning.” – unknown

“We need every human gift and cannot afford to neglect any gift because of artificial barriers of sex or race or class or national origin.” – Margaret Mead

Also on this day, in 1935 Will Rogers and Wiley Post were killed in a plane crash in Alaska.
Bonus Link: In 1969, Woodstock opened.

Yasgur’s Farm

Posted in History by patriciahysell on August 15, 2010

Jimi Hendrix at Woodstock

August 15, 1969: Max Yasgur opens his dairy farm to be the site of “An Aquarian Exposition” billed as “3 Days of Peace and Music.” Woodstock Music and Art Festival was a three day event that attracted more than 500,000 people for what turned out to be a four day event, lasting from August 15-18.

It is called “Woodstock” because that is where the event was originally scheduled. However, local opposition caused a change of venue. Max Yasgur was generous enough to allow the use of his 600 acre diary farm. It rained during the weekend party. There was a lack of sanitary facilities since only 200,000 were expected. Attendees shared food, drinks, and drugs. There were two deaths at the event, one heroin overdose and one person run over by a tractor. There were said to be two births, but these are unconfirmed.

Many of the big stars of the day played at the event including The Who, who had an altercation on stage with Abbie Hoffman and Jimi Hendrix who entertained the crowds with an alternative version of The Star Spangled Banner, his brilliant guitar playing in evidence. The Who did not take the stage until 4 AM and as Pete Townsend, the lead vocal, started the chorus of See Me, Feel Me – the sun began to rise. The two songs are said to be some of the best of any rock concert performances ever played – even though neither artist thought so at the time.

On January 7, 1970, Max Yasgur was sued by his neighbor for damages to his property which was slightly disrupted. Yasgur’s farm was destroyed. The event planners eventually paid Yasgur $50,000 for damages. He died of a heart attack in 1971, two years after Woodstock. Rolling Stone Magazine ran a full page obituary.

“Well, I came upon a child of God / He was walking along the road / And I asked him, ‘Tell where are you going?’ / This he told me / Said, ‘I’m going down to Yasgur’s Farm, / Gonna join in a rock and roll band.'” – Joni Mitchell

“Good morning, children of the 80s. This is your Woodstock, and it’s long overdue.” – Joan Baez

“This is not the real Woodstock. They messed up. They messed up the whole name of Woodstock.” – Mike Long

“When the power of love overcomes the love of power, the world will know peace.” – Jimi Hendrix

Also on this day, in 1935 Will Rogers and Wiley Post were killed in a plane crash in Alaska.
Bonus Link: In 1995, Shannon Faulkner
arrived at the Citadel in Charleston, SC.

Tagged with: , ,