Little Bits of History

Wild Bill Hickok

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 21, 2011

Wild Bill Hickok illustration from Harper's

July 21, 1865: Springfield, Missouri is the site of what is considered the first western shootout. Wild Bill Hickok faced Davis Tutt in the town square. Both men were dedicated gamblers and at one time they had been friends. This latter fact was despite Tutt’s having been a Confederate Army veteran and Hickok having been a scout for the Union side. Tutt was from Arkansas and after the Civil War, headed west. Some say the two men fell out over a woman, some claim Hickok had misused Tutt’s sister and possibly even fathered a child with her. By July 20, 1865 the two men were sworn enemies.

Hickok refused to play in any card games that included Tutt. For his part, Tutt supplied other card-players with advice and money against Hickok in the hopes of bankrupting his enemy. While playing poker at the Lyon House Hotel, Hickok was playing against several locals while Tutt offered hints and tips. This was futile as Hickok won about $200 (about $4,800 today) of what was essentially Tutt’s money. Immediately, Tutt claimed Hickok owed $40 for a previous horse trade. Hickok paid. Then Tutt claimed another $35 gambling debt. Hickok said it was only $25. Tutt disagreed and picked up Hickok’s prized gold pocket watch.

Hickok warned his old friend not to wear the watch. Tutt smirked a reply, stating he had every intention of wearing the watch. At that point, Hickok threatened to kill him if he walked across the town square wearing the watch. The next day, in order to prove he wasn’t afraid of Hickok, Tutt appeared on the town square with the watch on. Hickok arrived at the square, armed and dangerous. Tutt was considered to be the better marksman of the two. Both men faced each other side on, the standard duel position and about 75 yards apart. Tutt reached for his gun, Hickok drew and aimed using his other arm to steady the shot. Both fired about the same time. Tutt missed. Hickok hit Tutt in the left chest.

Hickok was arrested for murder two days later. The charge was reduced to manslaughter and the trial began on August 3 and lasted for three days. In that time, 22 witnesses testified. Hickok claimed self defense. The most disputed fact in the case was who shot first. The self defense strategy was technically not allowed since Hickok had come armed for a fight when he approached the town square. The jury decided it was a justified shooting. The gunfight was written up in Harper’s in 1867 and the legend came to us as an iconic occurrence.

“I think you are wrong, Dave. It’s only twenty-five dollars. I have a memorandum in my pocket. – Bill Hickok [July 20]

“Fine, I’ll just keep your watch ’til you pay me that thirty-five dollars! I intend on wearing it first thing in the morning! “- Davis Tutt [July 20]

“If you do, I’ll shoot you. I’m warning you here and now not to come across that town square with it on.” – Bill Hickok [July 20]

“Dave, here I am. Don’t you come across here with that watch.” – Bill Hickok [July 21]

Also on this day:
Brrrrrrr – In 1983, the coldest recorded temperature is captured at Vostok Station.
Destruction – In 356 BC, the Temple of Artemis was destroyed.

Women’s Army Corps

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 20, 2011

Women's Army Corps poster

July 20, 1942: The first unit of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps begins training at Des Moines, Iowa. While the unit was first created as a auxiliary unit, they were converted to full status, dropped the auxiliary and became the WACs the following year. About 150,000 women served in the armed forces in World War II. WACs were disestablished in 1978 and since that time, women have served in the same units as men but without serving in combat duties.

The US Navy had the WAVES, the Coast Guard had the SPARS, there was a Women’s Auxiliary Air Force and Women’s Airforce Service Pilots, a civil unit that supported the war effort. WACs were the first women, other than nurses, to serve with the US Army. The formation of the unit was not without controversy within the Army and with the general public as well. Men of the era were concerned that women would emasculate them in their private bailiwick of war making. Others were worried that they would be sent into combat while women were given the safe jobs. Women were not stationed overseas, even to Hawaii, until late in the war.

In order to join the WAACs, a woman had to be 21-44 (WAC regulations changed the ages to 20-49) and a US citizen in good health. She must have two character references and be of average height and weight. Although she could be married, she could not have children under the age of 14. She had to have two years of high school or be able to pass an achievement test. After 4-6 weeks basic training, she was given an aptitude test to see which jobs would suit her. The pay for a private was $600 per year, with food, housing, clothing, and medical care included.

Women have been involved in war campaigns for quite a while. In the US, nurses were included in personnel since the Revolutionary War. Women were also camp followers who cooked, did laundry, and provided other services to the men. Today’s female Army recruit can serve in about 90% of the job categories and she makes up 14% of the total numbers of personnel.

“Marriage is like the army. Everybody complains, but you’d be surprised at how many re-enlist.” – unknown

“Army food: the spoils of war.” – unknown

“No army has ever done so much with so little.” – Douglas MacArthur

“Army: A body of men assembled to rectify the mistakes of the diplomats.” – Josephus Daniels

Also on this day:
One Small Step – In 1969, Neil Armstrong steps out of the Eagle and walks on the moon.
Dethroned – In 1984, Vanessa Williams was asked to step down as Miss America.

First Teacher

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 19, 2011

Christa McAuliffe, astronaut

July 19, 1985: S. Christa Corrigan McAuliffe is selected to be the first teacher in space. More than 11,000 applications were sent in to the NASA Teacher in Space Project. The winner was given a seat on the Space Shuttle Challenger. Mission STS-51-L had objectives of performing experiments as well as teaching two lessons from the Shuttle. The Shuttle launched on January 28, 1986, and 73 seconds after the launch, it disintegrated killing all those on board. McAuliffe was 37 years old.

McAuliffe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on September 2, 1948 and was the eldest of five children. She had been interested in the space program from an early age and was captivated by Project Mercury and the Apollo moon landing program. She went on to Framingham State College and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in education and history.  After graduation, she wed her high school sweetheart and the two of them moved to Washington, D.C. so Steven McAuliffe could attend law school there. The couple had two children.

Christa got her first teaching job in 1970 and taught history at the junior high level. She earned a Master of Arts degree and by 1982 she moved up to high school where she taught history, law, economics and a self-designed course “The American Woman.” When President Reagan announced the Teacher in Space Program, Christa applied. Reagan’s goal was to remind Americans of the importance of teachers and the educational community as they serve the country.

The Council of Chief State School Officers was chosen by NASA to coordinate the selection process. Out of the initial pool, 114 semi-finalists were named. McAuliffe was one of two teachers named from New Hampshire. The semi-finalists went to Washington, D.C. for a conference and ten finalists were selected. Next stop was Johnson Space Center for a week of tests and interviews. On this day, then Vice President George H.W. Bush announced McAuliffe as the primary teacher and Barbara Morgan was the backup teacher. The two women took the 1985-86 school year off to train for the mission. Christa McAuliffe was listed as a payload specialist as the craft lifted off. Barbara Morgan became a professional astronaut and on August 8, 2007 became the first teacher in space when she flew on the Endeavor to the International Space Station.

“Do you realize that someday people will be going to the Moon? Maybe even taking a bus, and I want to do that!” [after John Glen’s historic flight]

“I watched the Space Age being born, and I would like to participate.” [on her application form]

“I cannot join the space program and restart my life as an astronaut, but this opportunity to connect my abilities as an educator with my interests in history and space is a unique opportunity to fulfill my early fantasies.”

“I have a vision of the world as a global village, a world without boundaries. Imagine a history teacher making history!” – all from Christa McAuliffe

Also on this day:
Tennis, Anyone? – In 1877, Wimbledon championships are first held.
SS Great Britain – In 1843, the largest sailing vessel in the world was launched.

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Nero Fiddled?

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 18, 2011

Nero with lyre while conflagration rages in background

July 18, 64 AD: Rome burns. The fire started during the night in the southeast end of the Circus Maximus in a shop that sold flammable goods. Tacitus, a Roman historian, was 9 years old at the time. He later wrote that the fire lasted five days and destroyed 4 of the 14 districts of Rome while severely damaging another 7 districts. Pliny the Elder, another historian, makes no mention of the fire. Oblique references state that the fire lasted six days and destroyed less than 10% of the city of 2 million. Rome had 1,700 private homes and 47,000 apartment blocks at the time.

Tacitus states that Nero was out of town when the fire broke out and he returned quickly to help coordinate fire fighting parties spending private funds to do so. He housed refugees and brought in food to feed the starving. He developed an urban renewal plan after the fire that included houses spaced farther apart and built of brick. He also appropriated a 300 acre tract of land destroyed by the flames and built a new palace. These post-fire events were paid for by extra taxes levied for that purpose.

Some writers blame Nero for both setting the fire and playing the lyre while Rome burned. Cassius Dio posits that Nero, himself, set the blaze while Suetonius states that he sent out men to start the conflagration while he watched from the Tower of Maecenas. Nero, needing someone else to blame, picked a new group in town – the Christians. The people belonging to the new sect were not trusted and were to be thrown to the dogs, crucified, or burned for the crime of arson.

Arson was suspected because the fire grew even against the wind. Until recently, this was thought to be a sign of the crime. However, we now know that large fires consume so much oxygen that they will spread against the wind, seeking more oxygen to support combustion. It was also noted that temples and concrete houses were burned. Today’s fire sciences tell us that embers coming through windows will ignite furniture and other combustible materials inside even concrete buildings. Roman windows were not shielded. It is thought today, that the fire was accidental.

“Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace.” – Tacitus

“Now started the most terrible and destructive fire which Rome had ever experienced. It began in the Circus, where it adjoins the Palatine and Caelian hills.” – Tacitus

“It seems unlikely that Nero would have started the great fire of AD 64, because it destroyed his palace, the Domus Transitoria … a huge, villa-like complex that stretched from the Palatine to the Esqualine.” – Eric Varner

“In all of these (Christian) oracles, the destruction of Rome by fire is prophesied. That is the constant theme: Rome must burn. This was the long-desired objective of all the people who felt subjugated by Rome.” – Gerhard Baudy

Also on this day:
Perfect – In 1976, Nadia Comaneci received the first perfect score at the Olympics.|
Manifesto – In 1925, Hitler’s Mein Kampf was published.

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Five and Dime

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 17, 2011

A F. W. Woolworth Company store

July 17, 1997: F. W. Woolworth Company closes. The first Woolworth store opened in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania in 1879. Frank Winfield Woolworth began his chain with a $300 loan, about $9,750 in 2011 dollars. Woolworth’s was one of the original five-and-dime stores. The store sold discounted merchandise at fixed prices – usually five or ten cents. These prices were lower than other local merchants. The merchandise was set out for the customer to handle without aid from a sales clerk. Before this time, most merchandise was kept behind a counter and a clerk would gather your purchases together for you to buy.

Woolworth’s first attempt at marketing was made in Utica, New York in 1878. It failed. After the successful opening of the store in Pennsylvania, Woolworth brought his brother into the business. Frank and Charles worked together and opened more stores, often in partnership with outsiders. Sometimes, the brothers went into partnership with “friendly rivals” to maximize their combined purchasing power. The Woolworth brothers had a flagship store in Philadelphia.

The success of these stores was phenomenal. In 1910, Frank Woolworth commissioned the construction of the Woolworth Building in New York City. The building was completed in 1913 and was the tallest building in the world until 1930. Woolworth paid for the building in cash. This building served as the company’s headquarters until its demise. The building was sold by Woolworth Company’s successor, the Venator Group in 1998.

In 1924, the brothers were operating six different chains of stores in the US and Canada. Rather than continue in this manner, they brought all 596 stores together under one banner and incorporated the F. W. Woolworth Co. Eventually, the stores began to also include lunch counters after they proved to be successful in England. The concept of a low price store was copied by many but for many years, Woolworth held market share. The stores often stood as anchors stores in shopping centers and malls. These large stores drove many local merchants out of business.

In the 1960s, Woolworth’s became the victim of a new trend as even larger discount stores came into being. In 1962, Woolco was founded. This was the same year S.S. Kresge Company opened K-Mart, Dayton’s opened Target, and Sam Walton opened his first Wal-Mart. By its 100th anniversary in 1979 the Woolworth chain was the largest department store chain in the world. The competition became too much and sales dropped. In 1983 Woolco closed and by 1993, the entire company underwent a restructuring. On this date, Woolworth closed its remaining stores and changed its name to Venetor which then changed to Foot Locker, Inc. There are still Woolworth named stores outside the US.

“Dreams never hurt anybody if you keep working right behind the dreams to make as much of them become real as you can.” – Frank W. Woolworth

“It’s not your salary that makes you rich, it’s your spending habits.” – Charles A. Jaffe

“Money doesn’t bring happiness, only shopping does.” – JLL Research

“Know how to effectively voice a complaint or make a claim at a retail store.” – Marilyn vos Savant

Also on this day:
Whoops! – In 1939, Douglas Corrigan takes off in the wrong direction.
M-I-C-K-E-Y – In 1955, Disneyland opened in Anaheim, California.

No Kissing

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 16, 2011


July 16, 1439: Kissing is banned in England by proclamation of King Henry VI. The king hoped to curtail the spread of the current pestilence running rampant throughout the kingdom. The ban failed. It seems the citizens only gave it lip service.

While Henry was concerned with the spread of disease, others have been more concerned with morality or sexuality. In 2003, Moscow was considering a ban on kissing in public places. The law’s wording would have included even legally married couples. Fines and jail time were to be imposed. The citizenry was not happy with this proposed law. People were willing to go about on the streets and kiss casual acquaintances or even perfect strangers just to prove their point.

Also in 2003, a gay inmate in a Scotland prison sued because the prison guards banned him from kissing his boyfriend when he visited. The inmate pointed out that straight couples were permitted this level of intimacy. When straight couples groped each other, the inmate and his partner did the same and were immediately accosted and separated. The same happened when they kissed. The prison instituted meetings between the two men in a segregated place and with a dividing glass between them. The free partner was considering filing suit as well.

There are other weird sex laws, of course. In 1562 Naples, Italy made it a capital offense to kiss in public. In Minnesota, it is illegal to have intercourse with a live fish. There is no mention of dead fish or how one stay’s underwater long enough to keep the fish alive. Romboch, Virginia has a law on the books stating it is illegal to have sex with the lights on. Again, no mention of what happens during daylight hours. In Cleveland, Ohio it is illegal for women to wear patent leather shoes because someone might see a reflection of what is hidden by the woman’s skirt. No mention of what happens if she is wearing slacks.

“Any man who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is simply not giving the kiss the attention it deserves.” – Albert Einstein

“The sick do not ask if the hand that smoothes their pillow is pure, nor the dying care if the lips that touch their brow have known the kiss of sin.” – Oscar Wilde

“Though I know he loves me, tonight my heart is sad; his kiss was not so wonderful as all the dreams I had.” – Sara Teasdale

“All the legislation in the world will not abolish kissing.” – Elinor Glyn

Also on this day:
Phony – In 1951, The Catcher in the Rye is published.
Calendars – In 622, the Islamic calendar began.

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Richard Speck

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 16, 2011

Richard Speck

July 14, 1966: Richard Speck tortures, rapes, and murders eight student nurses. Speck was born in central Illinois in 1941. He was close to his father who died of a heart attack at age 53 when Speck was six years old. His mother met Carl Lindberg, an unsavory man, on a train trip to Chicago. Lindberg had a 25 year criminal record. He was the antithesis of Speck’s sober, hardworking father. The Mrs. Speck and Lindberg married in 1950 and moved the family to Texas. The family moved ten times in the next dozen years. Lindberg psychologically abused the young Speck children. Speck struggled in school and dropped out at age 16, finishing only the eighth grade.

Speck began drinking at age 12 and by age 15 was drunk almost daily. He was first arrested for trespassing at age 13 and continued to have run-ins with the law for the rest of his life. He was arrested dozens of times before reaching age 21. At age 19, he met Shirley Malone, then 15. She was pregnant three weeks after they began dating. They married on January 19, 1962. When their daughter was born that summer, Shirley didn’t know where her husband was. He was in jail.

He continued to be in and out of jail on a variety of charges – forgery, theft, aggravated assault. When out of prison, he was unable to hold a job. He separated from his wife and then moved in with another woman who wanted him to babysit her three children. Speck could not stay out of trouble and was once again in custody. After his 42nd arrest in Dallas, his sister helped him leave town to avoid another prison sentence. He took a bus to Chicago.

In Illinois, he stayed with another sister. He was back to a life of crime within weeks in Monmouth, his hometown. He left there and went to Chicago in April 1966. Unable to hold on to a job, he became restless and began drinking heavily. At 11 PM on July 13, Speck broke into a townhouse used as dormitory for several student nurses. He was armed with a knife and may have been intent on a simple burglary. However, he held the women for hours, leading them one by one out of a room and then stabbing or strangling them to death. He raped his last victim and then strangled her. One woman escaped by hiding under a bed. Speck either lost count or didn’t know how many women were there. He was found guilty and given the death penalty. This was later reversed to life in prison. Speck died of heart attack one day before his 50th birthday.

“Clinton and Obama practice this politics known quaintly as the Richard Speck strategy: if you cannot take on everyone in the room at once, take them out of the room one at a time.” – Grover Norquist

“A sword never kills anybody; it is a tool in the killer’s hand.” – Lucius Annaeus Seneca

“America is still the No. 1 killer in the world.” – Jeremiah Wright

“I think capital punishment works great. Every killer you kill never kills again.” – Bill Maher

Also on this day:
That’s Cool – In 1850, Dr. John Gorrie demonstrates the first air conditioner.
Darien Scheme – In 1698, Scotland tried colonizing in the Americas.

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Pacific Aero Products

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 15, 2011

Boeing in the early days

July 15, 1916: Pacific Aero Products is incorporated in Seattle, Washington. William Boeing was born in 1881 and purchased a shipyard in Seattle on March 10, 1910. This site would become his first airplane factory. On July 4, 1914, Boeing took his first airplane ride. By this time Donald Douglas, the competition, had already received his Science degree from MIT and would soon join the Glenn L. Martin Co in Los Angeles as their chief engineer. By the beginning of 1916, Boeing began to assemble his first B & W seaplane in his boathouse. By June, the plane was completed and taken for her maiden trip.

On this day, Boeing incorporated his company for $100,000 [about $2.15 million today] and purchased 998 of the 1000 shares available. The Model C  was designed by Tsu Wong with Herb Munter as test pilot. When the plane was found to be lacking, they went back to the shop for revision. By 1918, the Model C was delivered to the Navy as trainers. By June 1918, Pacific Aero Products had received a contract from the Navy to build 50 HS-2Ls, which they started to produce in May. When World War I ended, the contract was cut in half. Donald Douglas designed the Martin MB-1 bomber in this same year.

There are five companies who are credited with charting the course for aviation as we know it today. Boeing Airplane Co., Douglas Aircraft Co., McDonnell aircraft Corp., North American Aviation, and Hughes Aircraft. Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt, a US Navy engineer had begun Pacific Aero Products which underwent the name change to Boeing Aircraft Co. on May 9, 1917. Boeing’s experience in the lumber trade combined with the engineering skill of his partner were instrumental in the design innovations produced by their company.

Today, Boeing is the leading aerospace company. It is also the largest manufacturer of both commercial jetliners and military aircraft. The company also produces munitions, space systems, and computer services. They are headquartered in Chicago, Illinois and employ over 158,000 people in the US and 70 other countries. More than 123,000 of those employees hold college degrees and of those, almost 32,000 have advanced degrees. W. James McNerney, Jr. is the current Chairman and CEO of the company. They revenue for 2010 was $64.306 billion with a profit of $3.307 billion.

“The most beautiful dream that has haunted the heart of man since Icarus is today reality.” – Louis Bleriot

“There is no sport equal to that which aviators enjoy while being carried through the air on great white wings.” – Wilbur Wright

“A commercial aircraft is a vehicle capable of supporting itself aerodynamically and economically at the same time.” – William B. Stout

“Running an airline is like having a baby: fun to conceive, but hell to deliver.” – C. E. Woolman

Also on this day:
What Does it Say? – In 1799, the Rosetta Stone is discovered.
Vast Wasteland – In 1976, the term “couch potato” was first used.

Pop Goes the Weasel

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 13, 2011

Pawn broker's logo

July 13, 1812: The first pawnbroker ordinance is passed in New York City. Pawn broking is as old, it seems, as money. There is evidence of pawning goods in Mosaic Law with regulatory edicts on interest accrued. China also strictly regulated pawn broking 3,000 years ago. Ancient Greeks and Romans also had cash flow issues and regulations in place. The children’s song, Pop Goes the Weasel, is about pawning (pop is a pawn) a shoemaker’s tool (weasel) for some needed cash that quickly disappears as well.

Poverty-stricken individuals take an object of some worth to a broker. They enter into a contract, accepting a sum of money and stating that they will pay back the sum plus interest within a certain time and retrieve the item. If not paid up, the item can be sold to anyone with the cash. Brokers may also simply buy items at far below market value without any commitment to buy them back. It is possible to use this system to fence stolen property. The US National Pawnbrokers Association claims that less than 0.1% of items pawned are stolen goods.

The symbol for pawn shops is fairly universal, especially in the Western world. There are three golden spheres suspended from a bar. It may have started out as three gold coins that evolved into spheres to be more eye-catching. The symbol was originally from the Lombard family in England, famous for it’s banking traditions. The Medici family of Renaissance Italy helped to propagate the use of the symbol. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of pawnbrokers.

There is some controversy with the use of the pawn system. Regardless of regulations, the interest rates accrued can be extremely high. Because of compound interest on the money loaned, the rate will typically be 5-12% interest per month which can get as high as 85% interest over a year’s time. People who are strapped for cash and unable to get a conventional loan will place their valuable items in hock planning to retrieve them, but with the added interest, they are unable to redeem them even after making some installment payments. The pawnbroker now owns the items themselves, and can make further revenue upon selling the goods.

“A financier is a pawn-broker with imagination.” – Arthur Wing Pinero

“Some guys are willing to pawn all kinds of things to make ends meet, because if you’re not equipped to have a second plan, then it’s drastic.” -Joe Salave

“The closer to the edge you are and the fewer options you have, the more likely you are to use a pawn shop. Pawn shops are a relatively costly form of credit.” – Michael Barr

“Going to a pawn shop is a short-term solution to meet the immediate cash-flow crunch.” – Doug Young

Also on this day:
You’re Out – In 1978, Lee Iaccoca is fired from Ford.
Hollywood – In 1923, the HOLLYWOOD sign was dedicated.

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Money Issues

Posted in History by patriciahysell on July 12, 2011

Minimum wages in the US across time

July 12, 1933: The US Congress passes the first minimum wage law for America. The law made it mandatory that US workers make at least thirty-three cents per hour. Workers’ rights were first brought to attention in Victoria, Australia in 1824 when the Factories Act provided the creation of a wages board. It was not a universal minimum wage, but rather set basic wages within six industries, all noted for paying low wages. This first act was a trial and the experiment was to last four years. The board was renewed in 1900 and made a permanent fixture in 1904. By that time, wages for 150 different industries were being monitored. It was however, a local phenomenon and in 1902 other areas of Australia also created boards.

New Zealand enacted the first national minimum wage laws in 1824 and unlike Victoria, these were enforced by compulsory arbitration. In 1907, the British sent Ernest Aves out to investigate both Australia’s and New Zealand’s laws. His report sent back to Winston Churchill was positive and Churchill introduced the Trade Boards Act on March 24, 1909 and it passed and went into effect in 1910.  In the US, some states started to enact wage laws as early as 1912 but they were more protective laws and did not cover everyone. They only protected women and children and were later ruled illegal.

On this day, the National Industrial Recovery Act set a standard for pay, but in 1935 Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States brought the idea before the Supreme Court who declared the law unconstitutional. After this, the minimum wage was abolished. However, Congress again passed a law in 1938, the Fair Labor Standards Act. This law ensured workers made twenty-five cents per hour ($3.77 in 2010 dollars). The highest purchasing power of the minimum wage in the US was in 1968 when the bar was set at $1.60 per hour or $9.86 in 2010 dollars.

National minimum wages are not posted throughout the world. In fact, only 18 out of 27 member states of the European Union have a national law. Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, German, Austria, Italy, and Cyprus have no laws but depend on employers or trade unions to set wages. In the US, most states also have their own minimum wages laws. Only South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana do not. Sixteen states have a minimum wage that is set higher than the national wage of $7.25.

“I don’t pay good wages because I have a lot of money; I have a lot of money because I pay good wages.” – Robert Bosch

“If workmen are denied any increase in real wages and they can look forward only to a better standard of living through reduction of prices, progress for them is terribly slow, and they become impatient and dissatisfied.” – Charles E. Wilson

“It is not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages.” – Henry Ford

“Men who do things without being told draw the most wages.” – Rodney Dangerfield

Also on this day:
Magic Screen – In 1960, Etch-A-Sketch arrives in stores.
Miners – In 1917, the Bisbee Deportation took place.

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