Little Bits of History

Miss Sam

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 21, 2011

Miss Sam

January 21, 1960: Little Joe 1B launches successfully and returns to Earth soon after. The flight was a Launch Escape System of the Mercury space program. The US had fallen behind the USSR in the Space Race and was trying valiantly to catch up. Little Joe 2 had launched on December 4, 1959 with the first live passenger. Sam, a Rhesus monkey, was aboard. The test was to see if there would be adverse effects on humans. Sam made it up into space and back, returning to Earth about eleven minutes later. Miss Sam only was aloft for about eight-and-a-half minutes. Two other monkeys were also sent into space – both chimpanzees and launched in 1961. All animals survived.

The Mercury Project ran from 1959 through 1963. The goal of the program was to put a man into orbit around the Earth. This was achieved on February 20, 1962 when John Glenn became the first American in orbit. The entire program included 20 unmanned launches and two suborbital flights followed by four orbital flights with astronaut pilots.

The craft used for the launches was a McDonnell Mercury spacecraft. All manned flights had a crew of one. The height of the capsule was 11.5 feet with a diameter of 6.2 feet. It was cone shaped and had a volume of 60 square feet. The maximum endurance performance was 34 hours or 22 orbits. The astronaut was in a sitting position in the capsule without room for movement. The entire Mercury program cost about $384 million or about $2.9 billion in 2010 USD.

Alan Shepard, Jr. was the first American to launch into space and completed a suborbital flight on May 5, 1961. Gus Grissom followed on July 21, 1961 (Gus died during a pre-launch test of Apollo 1 in 1967). John Glenn’s historic orbit came next. Both Scott Carpenter and Wally Schirra, Jr. went into orbit in 1962. The last flight of the Mercury project was in 1963 with Gordo Cooper, Jr. as pilot and the flight was the first to last for more than one day. Three more missions had been scheduled, but were cancelled for various reasons.

“I don’t know what you could say about a day in which you have seen four beautiful sunsets.” – John Glenn

“It’s a very sobering feeling to be up in space and realize that one’s safety factor was determined by the lowest bidder on a government contract.” – Alan Shepard

“Each test pilot I know considers him, or herself, now that there are women, to be the very best. It’s very demeaning to step down the ladder once in a while.” – Wally Schirra

“Father, we thank you, especially for letting me fly this flight – for the privilege of being able to be in this position, to be in this wondrous place, seeing all these many startling, wonderful things that you have created.” – Gordon Cooper

Also on this day:
The Evil Weed – In 1908, the Sullivan Ordinance, an early smoking ban, was passed and vetoed.
Concorde – in 1976, the Concorde began service.

 

Pearl Harbor

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 20, 2011

Astronaut view of Pearl Harbor (Photo from NASA Expedition 21 crew)

January 20, 1887: US Senate approves the Navy’s leasing Pearl Harbor. This was part of the Reciprocity Treaty ratified by the Hawaiian Islands and the United States in 1875 and went into effect in 1876. The next historical documents, a supplement to the original treaty, was forged in 1884 with the US Senate ratifying it, with amendments on this date. The King of Hawaii ratified it later in the year and the treaty was finalized in November. The treaty allowed the area called “Wai Momi” or “Water of Pearl” and also called “Pu’uloa” to come under the control of the US Navy for use as a harbor. In return for this land, Hawaii would be permitted to bring sugar into the United States duty free.

When Captain James Cook first located the Islands, the harbor was not considered worthwhile as there was a coral bar hampering free ship access. The harbor was rich in pearl producing oysters into the late 1800s. The lagoon harbor is located on the island of Oahu, just west of Honolulu. Keaunui, a Ewa chief, is credited with cutting a channel into Pearl Harbor. The estuary became known as Pearl River. Although this is not provable, the legend is given some credit. While there was water moving back and forth, someone made a path more suited to water travel.

Early seafaring men used the islands as a respite from the arduous work of sailing. They were laws enacted forbidding alcohol and prohibiting the taking of women aboard moored ships. In 1826, the Dolphin, captained by Lt. Percival, threatened violence if the laws were not revoked. They were. However, the US sent and envoy to King Kauikeaouli and began discussing international affairs and proper treatment for the locals. A trade treaty was the end result. Trade with Hawaii was profitable.

After the Alaska Territory was purchased, expansionists looked even farther west. With hostilities covering wider areas, it became necessary for the US to have outposts in areas farther from the mainland. Hawaii became a prime place for one of these outposts. After the treaty was ratified, the US took possession of Pearl Harbor to use as a Naval Base on November 9, 1887. The Spanish-American War of 1898 helped to make this a permanent facility.

“Beating the drums for Hawaii is not hard to do… the place just grows on you.” – James MacArthur

“Hawaii can be heaven and it can be hell.” – Jeff Goldblum

“I truly believe the brightest days lie ahead for the Great State of Hawaii.” – Linda Lingle

“Some people say Hawaii is spoiled, but I don’t think so. It’s modern. It’s a part of today’s world.” – James MacArthur

Also on this day:
Eeeeeeeeek – In 1885, LaMarcus Adna Thompson patented his roller coaster structure.
UCLA vs Houston – In 1968, the college basketball Game of the Century was played.

 

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Not Commando

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 19, 2011

Vintage Jockey underwear advertisement

January 19, 1935: Marshall Field and Company in Chicago, Illinois first sells Samuel T. Cooper’s new product – the Jockey brief. The new product was displayed in the window of the store during a blizzard when long underwear would have been quite useful. Regardless, 600 pair were sold even before the scanty item was taken from the window. Within three months, 30,000 pair of the revolutionary men’s underwear was sold.

Loincloths were the first male underwear although they started life as outerwear or only wear. There is evidence of men wearing leather loincloths as long as 7,000 years ago. By 2000 BC, Egyptians were wearing more comfortable cloth loincloths. By the 13th century, someone had invented pull on underpants. The baggy drawers were called “braies” and were worn by men of all classes. Wealthier men had a variety of other undergarments: corsets, cod pieces, stockings, and undershirts. The underwear had a direct influence on outerwear design.

With the Industrial Revolution and invention of the cotton gin, underwear could finally be mass manufactured and was now sold in stores. The “union suit” was the normal undergarment and was so named because it was a one piece ensemble that covered a man from ankles to wrists. By the 1930s, long underwear was losing favor to the newer boxer shorts – without a shirt and shorter legs.

Cooper started his business in 1876 making hosiery for lumberjacks who were getting blisters and infections from poorly made wool socks. By 1900 his factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin had switched to making underwear. In 1909 a new feature was added, the Kenosha Klosed Krotch, which added a diagonal slit instead of the drop seat that was common. The Great Depression nearly closed Cooper, Inc. but instead Mr. Wolf came to the company and reorganized the shop. And the new invention, the Jockey brief – named because it supported like a jockstrap, came to the world, changing underwear forever. Cooper changed its name to Jockey International, Inc. and is known worldwide.

“After I told my wife that black underwear turned me on, she didn’t wash my Y-fronts for a month.” – Chic Murray

“I’m into cotton underwear. I don’t need cheetah print leather to make me feel sexy.” – Nelly Futado

“I don’t believe in the afterlife, although I am bringing a change of underwear.” – Woody Allen

“Once you’ve been in your underwear together there’s no turning back – there’s no secrets anymore.” – Sarah Halliday

Also on this day:
Electrifying – In 1883, Roselle, New Jersey became the first electrified community.
LISA – In 1983, the Apple LISA computer was announced.

 

Daredevil Success

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 18, 2011

Eugene B. Ely lands his Curtiss pusher biplane on USS Pennsylvania.

January 18, 1911: Eugene B. Ely lands his plane on a 199-foot wooden platform attached to the deck of the USS Pennsylvania. This first plane landing on a ship at sea occurred in San Francisco Harbor. Ely was flying a 50 horsepower Curtis pusher biplane specially equipped with hooks on the landing gear. These hooks were designed to catch ropes tied to sandbags and stretched across the landing platform. They were intended to slow the plane to a stop and the tailhook method based on this system is still in use today.

The USS Pennsylvania was also called ACR-4 or Armored Cruiser No.4 and the ship was later named Pittsburgh and numbered CA-4. The ship was laid down on August 7, 1901 and launched on August 22, 1903. She received her commission on March 9, 1905 and was decommissioned on July 10, 1931. This day marks the ship’s claim to history books although the ship served well in World War I and in the inter-war period. The bow ornament from the ship was presented to the Carnegie Institute of Technology after she was decommissioned.

Eugene Ely was born in Williamsburg, Iowa. After graduating from college in 1904, he moved to San Francisco and was active in the sale and racing of cars, something new at the time. He married in 1907 and he moved to Oregon where he went to work for E. Henry Wemme. Wemme purchased one of the Glenn Curtiss’s first four-cylinder biplanes. Wemme could not fly the plane, but Ely believed it couldn’t be harder than driving a car, so he offered to fly it. He crashed and felt so bad, he purchased the wreck from Wemme. Ely repaired the plane and learned to fly. He flew in his first exhibition in Winnipeg. He moved to Minnesota and met Curtiss and was soon working for him. Ely got his federal pilot’s license [#17] on October 5, 1910.

In October, Ely met Captain Washington Chambers of the US Navy. Chambers was tasked with investigating uses of aviation within the Navy. Ely and Chambers began to experiment and on November 14, 1910 Ely became the first pilot to take off from a ship at sea, the USS Birmingham. It wasn’t picture perfect, but did prove the possibility of this maneuver. Ely loved to fly dangerously and never used a parachute. On October 19, 1911 while flying at an exhibition in Macon, Georgia, he was late pulling out of a dive and crashed. He jumped clear of the wrecked aircraft, but his neck was broken. He died only a few minutes later.

“It was easy enough. I think the trick could be successfully turned nine times out of ten.” – Eugene Ely after landing on the USS Pennsylvania

“I guess I will be like the rest of them, keep at it until I am killed.” – Eugene Ely, when asked if he would retire from flying

“The desire to fly is an idea handed down to us by our ancestors who, in their grueling travels across trackless lands in prehistoric times, looked enviously on the birds soaring freely through space, at full speed, above all obstacles, on the infinite highway of the air.” – Wilbur Wright

“My soul is in the sky.” – William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream

Also on this day:
Rudyard Kipling – In 1936, Rudyard Kipling died.
Botany Bay – In 1788, the First Fleet landed at Botany Bay.

 

Fore

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 17, 2011

Rodman Wanamaker

January 17, 1916: The US Professional Golfers’ Association [PGA] is formed by Rodman Wanamaker and seven others. The PGA was formed with former British PGA Secretary James Hepburn as head and elected an original 82 members to the fold. The PGA today is headquartered in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida even though it began in New York City at the Taplow Club. The PGA claims to be the largest working sports organization with more than 28,000 members. There is a separate association for women, the LPGA. Tournaments have been run by PGA Tour since 1968.

The origins of golf are lost in the mists of time. There was a similar game played at the time of Caesar in ancient Rome. There are pictures of Dutchmen playing a comparable game on the frozen canals dated from the 1400s. The official beginnings of the game we know today were less auspicious.

King James II of Scotland on March 6, 1457 banned “ye golf” in order to encourage the practice of archery, a much more useful endeavor. His son, James III, followed in his footsteps and issued his own ban in 1471. The next generation, James IV, also banned the game in 1491. Something happened however, because the official records of expenditures show that James IV changed his mind. In 1502 the king paid a bow maker 14 shillings for golf clubs. The castle and capitol at the time were located in Perth and that is where the king played the game. Later records show that he purchased equipment in Edinburgh and at St. Andrews.

The first set of 13 written rules for the game dates from 1744. Of course, there must have already been rules or no one could play and know who won. At the time, courses varied in size with any number of holes. St. Andrews, the famous, oldest operating course issued a new set of rules in 1858 listing the number of holes at 18. The first British Open was played in 1860. The first permanent golf club in North America was founded in 1873 at Montreal, Canada. The British PGA was formed in 1901.

“Although golf was originally restricted to wealthy, overweight Protestants, today it’s open to anybody who owns hideous clothing.” – Dave Barry

“Golf is an exercise in Scottish pointlessness for people who are no longer able to throw telephone poles at each other.” – Florence King

“According to locker room lore, the name golf arose by default – all the other four-letter words had already been taken.” – George Peper

“Golf can best be defined as an endless series of tragedies obscured by the occasional miracle.” – unknown

Also on this day:
Heading for the Hills in Minnesota – In 1950, the Great Brinks Robbery took place.
Popeye – In 1929, Popeye made his cartoon debut.

 

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Grote Mandrenke

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 16, 2011

Illustration of the damaging storm

January 16, 1362: A storm tide in the North Sea floods the German city, Rungholt, on Strand Island. A large Atlantic gale spread across England, the Netherlands, northern Germany and Schleswig, a Duchy between Germany and Denmark. The storm was ferocious and included a huge storm tide responsible for killing 25,000. The event is called the “second St. Marcellus flood” because January 16 is the feast of St. Marcellus and in 1219, a previous storm killed about 36,000. The storm surge swept far inland, breaking up islands, turning part of the mainland into new islands, and wiping out entire towns and districts, including Rungholt.

A storm tide or storm surge is associated with storms and weather systems involving low pressure, such as cyclone. The high winds put pressure on the ocean’s surface and causes the water to pile much higher than regular sea level. The rise in the water is caused by the storm and is in addition to the rising water levels associated with incoming tides. With advanced techniques, we can measure the storm surges. The highest was recorded in 1899 and was 43 feet high. It was located at Bathurst Bay, Australia. There is some question as to methodology and much of the height may have been wave run-up. Hurricane Katrina produced a maximum storm surge of more than 25 feet.

In the 13th and 14th centuries, with less prediction available, these horrible storms were devastating to life and property. Weather was chaotic in northern Europe at the beginning of what is called the Little Ice Age. This small ice age brought colder winters to parts of Europe and North America. Rivers, even the Thames, froze solid enough to support ice skating. Whole villages in Switzerland were wiped out by encroaching glaciers. And along the North Sea, attention was given to Zuider Zee.

Zuider Zee was a shallow bay in the North Sea located northwest of the Netherlands. It was about 60 miles inland and 30 miles at its widest point. It’s overall depth was about 13-16 feet. It had a coastline of about 200 miles and covered about 2,000 square miles. Because of the landscape’s propensity to increase storm surge devastation, a series of dikes and levees were constructed. Early dikes were not completely stable and broke down, causing even greater loss of life when they failed. The area has been stable since about the 15th century.

“The earth will end only when God declares it’s time to be over. Man will not destroy this earth. This earth will not be destroyed by a flood.” – John Shimkus

“The only thing that stops God from sending another flood is that the first one was useless.” – Nicolas de Chamfort

“We must build dikes of courage to hold back the flood of fear.” – Martin Luther King, Jr.

“What is the appropriate behavior for a man or a woman in the midst of this world, where each person is clinging to his piece of debris? What’s the proper salutation between people as they pass each other in this flood?” – Buddha

Also on this day:
Prohibition – In 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified.
Hello Dolly! – In 1964, Jerry Herman’s Broadway musical hit opened.

 

Donkeys and Elephants

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 15, 2011

"A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion"

January 15, 1870: “A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion” by Thomas Nast published in Harper’s Weekly pictures a donkey representing the Democrats for the first time. The donkey was labeled “COPPERHEAD PAPERS” – copperheads were Northern Democrats and the lion was inscribed with “HON. E.M. STANTON” who was Lincoln’s Secretary of War. Lincoln was the first Republican president.

Nast was born in Landau, Germany in 1840 and his parents moved the family to New York when he was six. He and his sister were enrolled in public school and Nast’s performance was dismal. He did not speak English and was in danger of failing. His neighbor gave him crayons, seconds from his own manufacturing effort, and Nast learned to draw beautifully. He was basically illiterate and remained so all his life. He was enrolled in art school at age 12 but was forced to leave at age 15 due to financial constraints.

Nast was not just a political activist in the US, but also in Europe where he was sent in 1860. He drew pictures depicting the Garibaldi military campaign – an effort to unite Italy – that interested people on both sides of the Atlantic. He came back to the States and Harper’s and took up his pen to fight the Civil War. His drawings of southern and border state battlefields led Lincoln to say that he was “our best recruiting sergeant.”

Nast not only gave us the Democrat Donkey, but also the Republican Elephant. He is responsible for our picture of Uncle Sam as a tall, lanky, bearded man. Prior to Nast’s drawings, there was no beard. He was also partly responsible for bringing down the Boss Tweed Ring in New York City. His cartoons even influenced Presidential elections. He was also famous for his Christmas drawings and is responsible for our idea of how Santa Claus looks, based on Clement Moore’s poem. He also placed Santa at the North Pole so that no nation would have control of the jolly elf. He gave him a workshop and elves to help assemble toys.

“What is at stake is the precious right of freedom of expression. Cartoons often provide an important form of political satire … To refuse to distribute a publication because of fear of vigilante violence is to undermine freedom of press _ so vital for our democracy.” – Paul Kurtz

“It is easier to restrain wild donkeys (Democrats) than to raise a dead elephant (Republicans).” – Arthur Hoff

“Satire should, like a polished razor keen, Wound with a touch that’s scarcely felt or seen.” – Mary Worley Montagu

“Politics is too serious a matter to be left to the politicians.” – Charles de Gaulle

Also on this day:
The British Museum – In 1759, the British Museum opened to the public.
Snowflake man – In 1885 Wilson Bentley took his first photograph of a snowflake.

Human Be-In

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 14, 2011

Announcement poster for Human Be-In created by Stanley Mouse and Michael Bowen

January 14, 1967: San Francisco inadvertently hosts the Human Be-In. On the afternoon and evening of this date, between 20,000 and 30,000 people gathered in Golden Gate Park. The day sprang from the 1960s counterculture and was a precursor to the Summer of Love. The counterculture members were proponents of personal empowerment, cultural and political decentralization, ecological awareness, communal living, radical liberal politics, and higher consciousness (often achieved by using psychedelic drugs). The hippie movement sprang from the Californian beat generation.

Michael Bowen, a progressive artist in the area, made a comment at the Love Pageant Rally held in October 1966 which led to this newer gathering. Back on October 6, 1966, California passed a law banning the use of LSD. This gathering was in direct response against that new law. The guest list included Timothy Leary, Richard Alpert (Ram Dass), Allen Ginsberg, and Gary Snyder. Dick Gregory, Lenore Kandel, and Jerry Rubin were there along with members of Hells Angels.

Music was provided by Jefferson Airplane, The Grateful Dead (who also played at the gathering the previous October), and Quicksilver Messenger Service. Owsley Stanley, an underground chemist, supplied great amounts of his “White Lightning” LSD for the event. This even brought the Haight-Ashbury area to the nation’s attention. Bowen and Allen Cohen (who helped Bowen organize the event) later said this was a necessary melding ground to bring together philosophically opposed factions. The Berkeley radicals, tending toward more militancy, were merged with the Haight-Ashbury hippies, who used a more peaceful approach.

The Human Be-In was based on previous sit-ins like that held in Greensboro, North Carolina, where Woolworth’s lunch counter served as a place to peacefully oppose segregation. Soon the –In was being added everywhere, including the television series, Laugh-In. The counterculture helped to question the authority that helped perpetuate unjust norms. They encouraged changes in civil rights, women’s rights, and consumer rights. They created their own alternative media and soon the “underground” was less avant guard and more a generation’s voice.

“Like every great religion of the past we seek to find the divinity within and to express this revelation in a life of glorification and the worship of God. These ancient goals we define in the metaphor of the present — turn on, tune in, drop out.” – Timothy Leary

“I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked.” – Allen Ginsberg

“By the end, everybody had a label – pig, liberal, radical, revolutionary… If you had everything but a gun, you were a radical but not a revolutionary.” – Jerry Rubin

“Hell hath no fury like a liberal scorned.” – Dick Gregory

Also on this day:
Dr. Albert Schweitzer – In 1875, Dr. Schweitzer was born.
Knights Templar – in 1129, formal approval for the Poor Fellow – Soldiers of Christ of the Temple of Solomon was given.

Greece

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 13, 2011

The flag of Greece

January 13, 1822: The First National Assembly of Epidaurus adopts a new Greek flag. This assembly was composed of representatives of the Greek revolutionaries who fought against the Ottoman rule. It opened in December 1821 at Piada (today Nea Epidaurus) and produced many important documents. One highly influential document is sometimes translated as Temporary Constitution of Greece but is usually called the Greek Constitution of 1822. There were 59 representatives included, most were landowners and ship-owners.

They designed the flag as a naval ensign. This flag was adopted as the Flag of Greece in 1978. It is comprised of nine equal horizontal stripes alternating between blue and white. The topmost and bottom stripes are both blue. In the upper left corner, there is a blue canton with a white cross, symbolizing Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the Greeks. The flag is sometimes called either the galanolefki or kianolefki, meaning the “blue-white.” There are a variety of theories about why there are nine stripes. One is that they represent the nine syllables in the Greek phrase for “Freedom or Death” while other say they represent the nine letters in the Greek word for freedom. They may also represent the nine Greek Muses of antiquity.

The Greek War of Independence, or the Greek Revolution, was waged between Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire from 1821 to 1830. Greece received help from several European allies, particularly the Russian Empire, the UK, and France. The Ottoman Empire received help from the Eyalet of Egypt. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, there were many attempts for the Greeks to gain independence from Middle East domination. In 1814, the Filiki Eteria was founded, a secret society with the aim of freeing Greece from tyranny. The Revolution is celebrated on March 25, much like the US celebrating July 4. Independence didn’t come for years, much like in the US as well.

The Revolution was led by Theodore Kolokotronis. The West saw this struggle in a romantic light. Many Greeks were joined by foreigners, included Lord Byron. The Russian minister of foreign affairs was himself a Greek. Ioannis Kapodistrias found himself moved from his Russian position to becoming the President of the new Republic of Greece after finally winning their freedom. The new Greece was soon turned into a monarchy with King Otto the first king of Greece, even though he was from Bavaria.

“And, of course, it must be asked: is it proper to transact with the Turks for the most reassured of Greek possessions when Greece is under Turkish invasion and subjugation?” – Melina Mercouri

“In Greece wise men speak and fools decide.” – George Santayana

“In many ways we are all sons and daughters of ancient Greece.” – Nia Vardalos

“The center of Western culture is Greece, and we have never lost our ties with the architectural concepts of that ancient civilization.” – Stephen Gardiner

Also on this day:
Sitting on the Throne – In 1863, Thomas Crapper pioneered his pedestal toilet.
Only Dr. Brydon survived – In 1842 Dr. Brydon was the only survivor among 14,500 in the Afghanistan withdrawal.

 

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Presentation is Everything

Posted in History by patriciahysell on January 12, 2011

All American hot dog

January 12, 1943: The Office of Price Administration in the US issues an edict renaming food items. Usually government offices are not in charge of neologisms, that is, coining new words or phrases. However, many other parts of the culture do, in fact, make up new ways for us to communicate with each other.

Neologism comes from two Greek words “neo” meaning “new” and “logos” meaning “word.” English has the largest vocabulary of any language partly because we have an affinity for neologisms. We take words from other languages and make them our own, such as the term “chaise lounge.” Another method of creating a new word is to morph words in the same language, such as taking smoke and fog and creating the word “smog.” The third method for expanding the dictionary is to take an old word and give it a new meaning, as in the spider, which is an insect that builds and moves along a web as well as a search device for the World Wide Web – a “bot” [another coined word] that seeks out information on a different web.

There are three stages for a neologism to traverse. First, it is Unstable and used by few people. The word moves along to the Diffused stage where it is used by a larger group and finally arrives at Stable, where you will now find it in wide use and entered in a dictionary. Words come from many sources – science [laser], science fiction [robotics], politics [genocide], pop culture [blog], commerce [aspirin], and literature [scrooge].

Freedom Fries aren’t the first time war has made us change the way we, or at least some of us, speak. During the Second World War, Frankfurt, Germany and Vienna, Austria were not seen in their best light. Frankfurters and wieners – names derived from the two places – were to be shunned, at least by the Office mentioned above. For a time hotdogs/frankfurters/wieners were called “Victory Sausages.”

“Yesterday’s neologisms, like yesterday’s jargon, are often today’s essential vocabulary.” – from Academic Instincts

“It can hardly be a coincidence that no language on earth has ever produced the expression ‘as pretty as an airport.’” – Douglas Adams

“Short words are best and the old words when short are best of all.” – Winston Churchill

“He spoke with a certain what-is-it in his voice, and I could see that, if not actually being disgruntled, he was far from being gruntled.” – P. G. Wodehouse

Also on this day:
Reach for the Stars – In 1866, the Royal Aeronautical Society was formed.
Batman, the television series – In 1966, Batman premiered on ABC TV.

 

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